WILLIAMS-EXETER PROGRAMME AT OXFORD UNIVERSITY

Directors, Professor THOMAS A. KOHUT

THE PROGRAMME

Williams College offers a year-long programme of studies at Oxford University in co-operation with Exeter College (founded in 1314), one of the constituent colleges of the University. Williams students will be enrolled as Visiting Students at Exeter and as such will be undergraduate members of the University, eligible for access to virtually all of its facilities, libraries, and resources. As Visiting Students in Oxford, students admitted to the Programme will be fully integrated into the intellectual and social life of one of the world's great universities.

Although students in the Programme will be members of Exeter College, entitled to make full use of Exeter facilities (including the College Library), dine regularly in Hall, and join all College clubs and organisations on the same terms as other undergraduates at Exeter, students will reside in Ephraim Williams House, a compound of four buildings owned by Williams College, roughly 1.4 miles north of the city centre. Six students from Exeter College will normally reside in Ephraim Williams House each year, responsible for helping to integrate Williams students into the life of the College and the University. A resident director (and member of the Williams Faculty) administers Ephraim Williams House, oversees the academic programme, and serves as both the primary academic and personal advisor to Williams students in Oxford.

Students enrolled in the Oxford Programme must enroll for the full academic year, which consists of three academic terms, each of which includes eight full weeks of instruction: MICHAELMAS TERM (early October to early December), HILARY TERM (mid-January to mid-March), and TRINITY TERM (late April to late June). Students are expected to be in residence to write their first tutorial papers before the eight weeks of instruction begins and to remain in residence during the week after the term ends in order to sit their final examinations. Between the three terms there are two intervening four-five week vacations, during which students may be expected to continue reading as preparation for their upcoming tutorials.

THE TUTORIAL SYSTEM

Undergraduate instruction at Oxford University is largely carried out through individual or small-group tutorials, in which students meet weekly with their tutor to present and discuss an essay they have written, based on an extensive amount of reading undertaken from an assigned reading list they will receive at the beginning of each term. In addition to the weekly tutorial, students are usually encouraged to attend a pertinent course of lectures offered by the University that corresponds to the material being addressed in their tutorials.

Each student will plan a course of study for the three terms of the academic year in consultation with the director of the Programme. In his or her capacity as the Tutor for Visiting Students at Exeter College, the director, working closely with Exeter's subject tutors, will arrange the teaching for the students, monitor student progress, be in regular contact with the student's tutors, supervise the examinations that students will sit at the end of each academic term, and report on each student's academic progress to the Senior Tutor at Exeter College. There are no "add/drop" periods at Oxford; once a student has made a commitment to a particular tutorial course, and the director has then secured a tutor to teach that course, students cannot back out.

Over the course of the three terms, students are required to enroll in a minimum of FOUR full tutorial courses (each consisting of eight individual tutorial meetings and requiring the preparation of eight essays) and ONE half tutorial course (consisting of four individual tutorial meetings and the preparation of four essays). Some students choose to substitute a fifth full tutorial course for the half tutorial course and a few will decide to enroll in two full tutorial courses each term. The average course load undertaken by most students in residence in Oxford during the past has been five full tutorial courses or their equivalent.

GRADES AND CREDIT

Grades for each tutorial course reflect the grade assigned to all eight (or four) tutorial sessions, including their related essays, considered together, as well as the grade for the final examination on work accomplished in the individual tutorials and supplementary readings. Final examinations last three hours in the case of full tutorial courses and two hours in the case of half tutorial courses and are always sat in the ninth week of term, following the eight weeks of instruction each term. The final grade recorded on the Williams transcript is calculated by counting the grade for the tutorial meetings and essays as two-thirds of the grade and the final examination as one-third of the overall grade. For some tutorial courses (especially in writing and the studio arts), tutors may offer the student the option of a final paper or project in lieu of an examination.

Upon satisfactory completion of the requirements for the Williams-Exeter Programme at Oxford University, students receive academic credit for a regular Williams academic year, the four tutorial courses replacing the regular eight semester courses the student would normally take at Williams, the half tutorial course replacing the Winter Study Course. Grades eventually become a part of their Williams transcript and will be included in the computation of their Grade Point Average.

Tutorial courses in Oxford may be used toward fulfilling the divisional distribution requirement; a student may earn a maximum of three distribution requirements, with no more than one from each division, for the year. All tutorial courses at Oxford meet the Williams College "Writing Intensive" designation, except for those in the studio arts, mathematics, and the sciences.

Tutorial courses in Oxford may also be used to meet major requirements. Some departments at Williams will grant a two-course credit towards the major for each full tutorial course taken at Oxford, and one course towards the major for each half tutorial course taken at Oxford. Most departments, however, will grant a one-course credit towards the major for each relevant tutorial course taken at Oxford (whether a full or a half). Half tutorial courses are sometimes deemed to be insufficiently broad to satisfy certain requirements for the major. Students are encouraged to check with their department chair(s) to confirm official department policy.

THE COURSE OF STUDY

In addition to the opportunity to pursue British and Commonwealth Studies, Williams students in Oxford will be able to pursue tutorials in fields in which Oxford is particularly noted (Anthropology, English Literature, Modern History, Philosophy, Politics, Psychology, Classics, Theology, the Natural Sciences, etc.). Exeter College also has a Fellow in English Language and Literature (with interests ranging from the Renaissance-including Shakespeare-to the early nineteenth century) committed to teaching Williams students, and students are thus encouraged to consider undertaking at least one tutorial course in these fields as part of their course of study.

What follows is a list of tutorial courses normally available to students studying with the Williams-Exeter Programme at Oxford. The tutorials listed below (WIOX 311-384) represent a selection of some of the standard "papers" (courses) that comprise the Oxford degrees in various subjects and that are taught in tutorial format. Normally, but not always, tutors can be secured who can teach these subjects to Williams students, although demand, leave patterns, and other constraints, sometimes mean that not all of these subjects can be staffed in all terms.

Some tutorial courses are accompanied by lectures. In such cases the term in which the lectures are delivered is listed, as is the term in which students should take the tutorials (MT- Michaelmas Term; HT-Hilary Term; TT-Trinity Term). Sometimes, where appropriate, prerequisites are also listed.

While many students enroll in the tutorial courses listed below (WIOX 311-384), it is also possible to choose from other available Oxford courses under the heading of WIOX 390, a general rubric for more specialized tutorial work. This is described in more detail below.

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WIOX 311 Art History: English Architecture 1660-1720

A study of the principal buildings of Wren, Hawksmoor, Jones and Vanburgh in relation to the contemporary historical background.
Prerequisites: ArtH 101 and 102. Lecutres: MT, HT. Tutorials: any term.

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WIOX 312 Art History: History of Collecting and Display in Europe 1500-Present

Topics range from the Renaissance cabinet of curiosities, to the Grand Tour, the founding of the first public museums, and the current battles for the repatriation of colonial artefacts.
Prerequisities: ArtH 101 and 102. Tutorials: any term.

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WIOX 316 Biology: Evolution and Systematics

Evolution as a central theme of biology; methods and data of phylogeny reconstruction; macro-evolutionary change; biogeography; adaptation; comparative method; natural selection; evolution of sex; the modern synthesis.
Prerequisites: Biology 101 and 102. Tutorials: any term.

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ECONOMICS
Each of the following courses is available to Williams students in Oxford. As all of the economics teaching is arranged by Oxford's Economics Department, students need to inform the Director of the Programme of their interest in any of the following economics options when registering during the Spring of their sophomore year; commitments to any of the following papers must be made in advance for the entire academic year. Students will be expected to attend the lectures in all terms designated and undertake their tutorial work in the appropriate term, as noted below. All courses listed below can only be taken as "full" tutorial courses.

WIOX 319 Economics: Microeconomics

Risk, uncertainty and information; the firm and market structures; welfare economics; externalities, public goods, and the sources of market failure; the distribution of income; trade and protection; the applications of microeconomics to public policy issues. (Similar to Economics 251.)
Prerequisites: Economics 110 and 120. Lectures: MT. Tutorials: MT only.

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WIOX 320 Economics: Macroeconomics

Alternative macroeconomic theories and policy implications; aggregate investment and consumption; demand for money; unemployment and inflation; balance of payments adjustment; exchange rates; supply-side policies; monetary and fiscal policy; international aspects of macroeconomic policy-all with special reference to the UK and its membership of the EU. (Similar to Economics 252.)
Prerequisites: Economics 110 and 120. Lectures: HT. Tutorials: HT only.

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WIOX 321 Economics: British Economic History Since 1870

Trends and cycles in national income; changes in the structure of output, employment, and capital; the location of industries, industrial concentration, and the growth of large firms; prices, interest rates, and public finance; trade unions and the labour market; poverty and living standards; foreign trade; government policy.
Prerequisites: Economics 110 and 120; Economics 251 or 252 (or WIOX 319 or 320). Lectures: MT, HT. Tutorials: TT.

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WIOX 322 Economics: International Economics

Theories of international trade and their application to economic policy and current problems; theory and practice of economic integration; current problems of the international trading system; methods of balance of payments adjustment and financing; behaviour of floating exchange rates; Exchange Rate Regimes and the International Monetary System.
Prerequisites: Economics 110 and 120; Economics 251 or 252 (or WIOX 319 or 320). Lectures: MT, HT, TT. Tutorials: TT (or MT with approval of Director).

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WIOX 323 Economics: Command and Transitional Economies

Traditional command economies, attempts to reform them in the direction of market socialism, and the transition to market economies. Focus is largely on Russia and the nations of Eastern Europe, with some attention to China.
Prerequisites: Economics 110 and 120; Economics 251 or 252 (or WIOX 319 or 320). Lectures: MT, TT. Tutorials: TT.

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WIOX 324 Economics: Economics of Developing Countries

Theories of growth and development; poverty and income distribution; human resources; labour markets and employment; industrialization and technology; agriculture and rural development; monetary and fiscal issues; foreign aid; the role of government in development.
Prerequisites: Economics 110 and 120; Economics 251 or 252 (or WIOX 319 or 320). Lectures: MT, HT, TT. Tutorials: TT.

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WIOX 325 Economics: Money and Banking

The nature and definition of money; the role, behaviour, and regulation of banks and other financial intermediaries; the supplies of money and credit; the interest rate structure and equity prices; the aims, instruments, and practice of monetary policy; foreign exchange markets and monetary policy; the relations between monetary and fiscal policy.
Prerequisites: Economics 110, 120, and 252 (or WIOX 320). Lectures: MT, HT, TT. Tutorials: TT (or MT with approval of Director).

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WIOX 326 Economics: Public Economics

Welfare-economic foundations; the measurement of well-being; taxation and incentives; taxation, debt, and behaviour over time; health, education, and social security; public goods, externalities and market failure; policy towards natural resources and the environment.
Prerequisites: Economics 110, 120, and 251 (or WIOX 319). Lectures: MT, TT. Tutorials: TT (or MT with approval of Director).

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WIOX 327 Economics: Economics of Industry

Market structures, costs and scale economies; oligopoly and the theory of games; empirical studies of pricing and profitability; advertising and product differentiation; mergers and vertical integration; public enterprises and public policy towards market structure; managerial theories of the firm.
Prerequisites: Economics 110, 120, and 251 (or WIOX 319). Lectures: TT. Tutorials: TT.

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WIOX 328 Economics: Labour Economics and Industrial Relations

Organization and policies of trade unions and employers' associations; employer-employee relations; the theory and practice of collective bargaining; the role of the government in industrial relations; the application of economic analysis to labour markets; economic aspects of trade unions; the economics of labour policy.
Prerequisites: Economics 110 and 120; Economics 251 or 252 (or WIOX 319 or 320). Lectures: MT, HT, TT. Tutorials: MT or TT.

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WIOX 329 Economics: Classical Economic Thought

The theories of value, distribution, money, and international trade as put forward and developed by Smith, Ricardo, and Marx.
Prerequisites: Economics 110 and 120; Economics 251 or 252 (or WIOX 319 or 320). Lectures: HT. Tutorials: TT.

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WIOX 330 English: English Literature (surveys)

WIOX 330c, d, e, and f to Williams students; a, b, and g are taught by other tutors.

WIOX 330a English: English Literature from 600 to 1100 MT, HT

WIOX 330b English: English Literature from 100 to 1509 MT, HT

WIOX 330c English: English Literature from 1509 to 1642 MT, TT

WIOX 330d English; English Literature from 1642 to 1740 HT, TT

WIOX 330e English: English Literature from 1740 to 1832 TT

WIOX 330f English: English Literature from 1832 to 1900 MT

WIOX 330g English: English Literature from 1900 to present HT

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Though not typically offered during Trinity Term at Oxford, Exeter's Williams Fellow in English may be available to offer these two period courses during Trinity Term to Williams students.

WIOX 331 English: Shakespeare

Consideration of Shakespeare's work in its broader literary and historical context, with a focus on both the range of Shakespeare's writings and the details of specific plays. Students may choose to focus on specific aspects of Shakespeare's work. No prerequisites, normally available in all three terms, best taken as a "full" course.

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WIOX 332 The History, Theory, and Use of the English Language

The history, use, and theory of the English language, with special reference to literary language, from Chaucer to the present day. Topics in linguistic theory (such as vocabulary, syntax and morphology, social and geographical aspects of the use of English), as well as in the history and theories of literary language (such as figurative language, relations between oral and written discourse, and literary language as persuasion and social action. No prerequisites; normally available in all three terms.

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WIOX 333 English: Special Authors

This course allows students to focus in detail on the work of one or more authors of their choice, as a "full" or "half" course. Here, the choice of author is broader than that available within the Oxford undergraduate syllabus. The choice of Special Author should approximately correspond chronologically with the period papers on offer at any given point in the year, and with the provision of teaching and lectures.
Prerequisite: some background in the close reading of literary texts and a general familiarity with the literature of the period. The following are examples of some of the Special Authors who are currently, or have been, or will be studied for the Special Authors course of the Oxford University syllabus. It is important to note that other authors can usually be studied, depending on the availability of tutors:

WIOX 333a The Beowulf poet, Alfred, Aelfric, the Exeter Book (600-1100) MT

WIOX 333b Chaucer, Julian of Norwich, Langland, the York Cycle, the N-Town Cycle (1100-1509) MT, HT

WIOX 333c Donne, Marlowe, Spenser, Jonson (1509-1642) MT

WIOX 333d Milton, Marvell, Swift, Pope, Bunyan (1642-1740) MT, HT

WIOX 333e Wordsworth, Fielding, Austen, Byron (1740-1832) MT, TT

WIOX 333f Tennyson, Dickens, Wilde (1832-1900) MT

WIOX 333g Joyce, T. S. Eliot, Woolf, Coetzee, C. S. Lewis, Yeats, Stoppard (1900-present) MT, HT

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It is open to Williams students to devise a general topic of their own choice for study, falling within one of the categories below, when tutors are available. The option is similar to the Special Topic course followed by third-year Oxford undergraduates. The choice of Special Topic is usually configured so as approximately to correspond chronologically with the period papers on offer at any given point in the year (as given at WIOX 330 above), and with the provision of teaching and lectures-although in practice there may often be some overlap across periods.
Prerequisite: some background in the close reading of literary texts and a general familiarity with the literature of the period. The Director should be available to advise you on the best arrangement of your choice.

WIOX 334a Fiction in English

WIOX 334b Drama in English

WIOX 334c Prose in English

WIOX 334d Poetry in English

WIOX 334e American Literature from the beginnings to the present day

WIOX 334f Women's Writing in English

WIOX 334g History and Theory of Criticism

WIOX 334h Postcolonial Literature

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WIOX 335 English: Women's Writing

Various aspects of writing by women from the early Middle Ages to present-day feminist theoretical writing. Students may focus on various topics, including notions of a female canon, autobiographies and letters as specific forms of women's writing, American women's writing, postcolonial women writers, feminist theoretical writing, etc. No prerequisite; normally available in all three terms.

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WIOX 336 English: The History and Theory of Criticism

A broad survey of the history and function of criticism from the classical period to the present, with special attention paid to different schools of literary theory.
Prerequisite: two courses in English at Williams; normally available in all three terms, only as a "full" course.

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WIOX 340 History: General History (surveys)

The following courses offer general introductions to western history during specific time periods. Each is a separate entity, normally undertaken as a "full" course. There are no prerequisites for these courses and tutorials can generally be arranged for any of them in any term.

WIOX 340a General History, 285-476

WIOX 340b General History, 476-750

WIOX 340c General History, 700-900

WIOX 340d General History, 900-1122

WIOX 340e General History, 1122-1273

WIOX 340f General History, 1273-1409

WIOX 340g General History, 1409-1525

WIOX 340h General History, 1517-1618

WIOX 340i General History, 1618-1715

WIOX 340j General History, 1715-1799

WIOX 340k General History, 1799-1856

WIOX 340l General History, 1856-1914

WIOX 340m General History, 1914-1945

WIOX 340n General History, 1941-1973

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WIOX 341 History of the British Isles (surveys)

The following courses offer general introductions to the History of the British Isles, paying particular attention to the evolution and development of Britain as a nation and to the major political, social, and economic trends that have shaped the course of the nation's development. Each course is a separate entity and is normally undertaken as a "full" course. There are no prerequisites for these courses and while lectures are normally delivered in Michaelmas Term, tutorials can generally be arranged for any of them in any term. Exeter has two Fellows who teach British history and are often available to teach WIOX 351b, 351c, and 351d.

WIOX 341a History of the British Isles, c.300-1087

WIOX 341b History of the British Isles, 1042-1330

WIOX 341c History of the British Isles, 1330-1550

WIOX 341d History of the British Isles, 1500-1700

WIOX 341e History of the British Isles, 1685-1830

WIOX 341f History of the British Isles, 1815-1924

WIOX 341g History of the British Isles, since 1900

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WIOX 342 History: British Economic and Social History, 1700-1870

The transformations of Britain's society and economy during the industrial revolution; the causes and nature of industrialization, urbanization, and economic modernization; the various social dislocations associated with economic change; and the changing economic, administrative, and social discourses which helped reshape Britain's economic relations and social institutions.
Prerequisites: Economics 110 and 120. Lectures: HT. Tutorials: HT.

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WIOX 343 History: Europe and Wider World, 1815-1914

This course examines the processes of European expansion including its economic and cultural bases, and the nature and extent of its impact (political, economic, cultural) in the extra-European world. The course is divided into a Section A: General Themes and a Section B: Concentration on two regions (e.g., India and China, India and Africa). This paper complements the more advanced option, Imperialism and Nationalism, 1830-1980. Lectures: MT; Tutorials: MT.

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WIOX 344 History: Imperialism and Nationalism, 1830-1980

Analysis of the European and extra-European foundations of empire in the light of existing theories of imperialism and `orientalism'; study of the overseas expansion of the European powers; theories of collaboration and resistance; the theory and practice of anti-imperial nationalism and decolonization. Students may choose one of the following topics for particular study: a) South Asia; b) Sub-Saharan Africa; c) Britain's settler colonies; d) Maritime South East Asia; e) Themes in the History of Slavery and Abolition. Background material for this course is provided by Europe and the Wider World. Lectures: HT. Tutorials: HT or TT.

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WIOX 345 History: Intellect and Culture in Victorian Britain

The ideas and culture of the Victorians with reference to their analytical content and social context. Topics covered range from progress and faith, through natural and social science, to fine art and gender. Lectures: HT. Tutorials: HT or TT.

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WIOX 346 History: Nationalism, Politics and Culture in Ireland, c.1870-1921

Events and ideas in Ireland from the Home Rule era to the Anglo-Irish Treaty, stressing themes and nationalist rhetoric as much as the actual events that led to Home Rule. Lectures: MT. Tutorials: HT or TT.

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WIOX 347 History: A Comparative History of the First World War, 1914-1920

Comprehensive survey of the events of the First World War which relates the spheres of political, economic, social, and military history in the various combatant nations; battles and strategy; cultural responses to the war; the aftermath of the conflict. Lectures: HT. Tutorials: HT or TT.

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WIOX 348 History: The Arab World, 1914-1960

Impact of the First World War on the Ottoman Empire; break-up of the Empire and establishment of new nations and European protectorates; Arab nationalism and the rise of the modern Arab nation state. Tutorials: any term.

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WIOX 349 History: India, 1919-1939: Contesting the Nation

The rise of the Indian independence movement; Civil Disobedience; the Congress Party and the career of Mahatma Gandhi. Lectures: MT. Tutorials: any term.

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Algebra is the study of properties and characteristics of sets with one or two operations: groups, rings, and fields; investigation may lead to the insolvability of the classical construction problems or to the rudiments of Galois theory. Counts as Math 312 at Williams. Prerequisites: Math 209, 251, or Stat 201. Lectures: MT (Rings and Arithmetic); HT (Groups in Action, Fields). Tutorials: MT or HT (depending on prior background).

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Topology is the study of when one geometric object can be continuously deformed and shaped into another object; topics may be drawn from point-set, algebraic, or geometric topology, and from homotopy theory. Counts as Math 324.
Prerequisites: Math 301, 305, or 312. Lectures: HT, plus first 2 weeks of MT (topology of R, R^2). Tutorials: HT.

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Motivated by historical gaming questions, modern probability is concerned with random variables, distribution and expectation, laws of large numbers, and the Central Limit Theorem, with applications from classical and newer fields of study. Counts as Math 341.
Prerequisites: Math 211 or 251. Lectures: HT (part A). Tutorials: HT.

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Analytic or algebraic number theory treats the integers and generalizations thereof with explorations of topics such as primes, divisibility, and congruence along with applications. Counts as Math 313.
Prerequisite: Math 211 or 251. Lectures: TT (part A, Maths finals). Tutorials: TT.

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The theory of calculus as applied in the calculus of variations to various topics which may include geodesics, harmonic functions, minimal surfaces, optimal economic strategies, and general relativity. Counts as Math 305.
Prerequisites: Math 105 and 211. Lectures: MT (Diffl Eqns), HT (part A). Tutorials: HT.

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WIOX 361 Philosophy: The History of Philosophy from Descartes to Kant

A consideration of the main philosophical ideas of the period, focusing in particular on the work of Descartes, Spinoza, Leibniz, Locke, Berkeley, Hume, and Kant. No prerequisites. Lectures: MT and HT. Tutorials: any term.

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WIOX 362 Philosophy: Knowledge and Reality

Knowledge and justification; perception; memory; induction; other minds; a priori knowledge; necessity and possibility; reference; truth; facts and propositions; definition; existence; identity; substances, change, events; properties; causation; space; time; essence; realism and idealism; primary and secondary qualities. No prerequisites. Some background in Philosophy in useful. Lectures: MT and HT. Tutorials: any term.

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WIOX 363 Philosophy: Ethics

Ethical concepts (obligation, goodness, virtue); objectivity and the explanation of value beliefs; moral psychology; freedom and responsibility; consequentialism and deontology; self-interest, prudence, and amoralism; rights, justice, and equality; Kant; happiness, welfare, and a life worth living. No prerequisites. Lectures: MT and HT. Tutorials: any term.

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WIOX 364 Philosophy: Philosophy of Mind

The nature of persons; the relation of mind and body; self-knowledge; knowledge of other persons; consciousness; perception; memory; imagination; thinking; belief; feeling and emotion; desire; action; subconscious and unconscious mental processes.
Prerequisites: Philosophy 101 or 102, or WIOX 361 or 362. Lectures: MT and HT. Tutorials: any term.

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WIOX 365 Philosophy: Philosophy of Science and Social Sciences

A) The nature of theories; scientific observation and method; scientific explanation; the interpretation of laws and probability; rationality and scientific change; major schools of philosophy of science. B) Social meaning; individualism; rationality; rational choice theory; the explanation of social action; prediction and explanation in economics; historical explanation; ideology.
Prerequisites: Philosophy 101 or 102, or WIOX 361 or 362. Lectures: HT. Tutorials: HT or TT.

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WIOX 366 Philosophy: Philosophy of Religion

An examination of claims about the existence of God, and God's relation to the world; their meaning, the possibility of their truth, and the kind of justification which can or needs to be provided for them; the philosophical problems raised by the existence of different religions.
Prerequisites: Philosophy 101 or 102, or WIOX 361 or 362. Lectures: MT. Tutorials: any term.

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WIOX 367 Philosophy: Philosophy of Logic and Language

Topics will include meaning, truth, logical form, necessity, existence, entailment, proper and general names, pronouns, definite descriptions, intensional contexts, adjectives and nominalization, adverbs, metaphor, and pragmatics.
Prerequisites: Philosophy 101 or 102, or WIOX 361 or 362. Lectures: HT. Tutorials: HT or TT.

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WIOX 368 Philosophy: Theory of Politics

The critical study of political values and of the concepts used in political analysis: the concept of the political; power, authority, and related concepts; the state; law; liberty and rights; justice and equality; public interest and common good; democracy and representation; political obligation and civil disobedience; ideology; liberalism, socialism, and conservatism.
Prerequisites: Philosophy 101 or WIOX 363. Lectures: MT and HT. Tutorials: any term.

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WIOX 369 Philosophy: Aesthetics and the Philosophy of Criticism

The nature of aesthetic value; the definition of art; art, society, and morality; metaphor; criticism and interpretation; expression; pictorial representation. Focus on the principal authorities on the subject, including Plato, Aristotle, Hume, Kant.
Prerequisites: Philosophy 101 or 102, or WIOX 361 or 362. Lectures: HT. Tutorials: HT or TT.

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WIOX 370 Philosophy: Post-Kantian Philosophy

The main developments of philosophy in Continental Europe after Kant, excluding Marxism and analytical philosophy. Students choose to focus on one or more of the following philosophers: Hegel, Schopenhauer, Nietzsche, Husserl, Heidegger, Sartre, Merleau-Ponty.
Prerequisites: Philosophy 101 or 102, or WIOX 361 or 362. Lectures: all three terms. Tutorials: any term.

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WIOX 371 British Politics and Government in the Twentieth Century

British politics (including major domestic political crises, ideologies and political issues) and the evolution of the British political and constitutional system (including elections and the electoral system, political parties, parliament, the cabinet system, and machinery of government) in the twentieth century. Lectures: all three terms. Tutorials: any term.

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WIOX 372 Political Science: Comparative Government

Party and electoral systems; forms of government and the allocation of power between institutions; the political executive; the roles of legislatures; the structure and political power of bureaucracy; public policy-making; judicial review; regime transformation, civil-military relations; democratization. Lectures: MT and HT. Tutorials: any term.

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WIOX 373 Political Science: Government and Politics in Western Europe

Comparative focus on governmental structures and political processes in at least three Western European nations, normally France, Germany, and Italy. Lectures: MT. Tutorials: any term.

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WIOX 374 Political Science: Russian Government and Politics

The government and politics of the Soviet Union (especially 1953-1991) and of post-Soviet Russia, focusing on the changing relationships between political institutions and on the process of political transformation. Topics include: political leadership; ideology and political culture; the national question and federalism; the relationship between economic and political power. Lectures: HT and TT. Tutorials: HT and TT.

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WIOX 375 Political Science: The Political Economy of the European Union

The history and development of the institutions of European integration since the 1950s; the structure and power of the Council, the Commission, and the Parliament; growth and expansion into Eastern Europe; monetary integration and the advent of the Euro; future prospects. Tutorials: any term.

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WIOX 376 Political Science: Classical Political Thought

A critical study of the classical political theorists, including Plato, Aristotle, Aquinas, Machiavelli, Hobbes, Locke, Montesquieu, Rousseau, and Hume. Lectures: MT and HT. Tutorials: any term.

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WIOX 377 Political Science: Foundations of Modern Social and Political Thought

A critical study of modern social and political theorists, including Bentham, Mill, Hegel, Saint-Simon, Tocqueville, Marx, Weber, and Durkheim. Lectures: MT and HT. Tutorials: any term.

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WIOX 378 Political Science: International Relations

The principal theories, concepts and institutions of international relations. Topics include: law and norms, order, self-determination, security, war and conflict resolution, foreign-policy analysis, international political economy, regional integration, and international institutions. Lectures: all terms. Tutorials: any term.

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WIOX 379 Political Science: International Relations in the Era of the Cold War

The relations among the major powers, 1945-85, including domestic and external factors shaping foreign policy: the origins and course of the Cold War; East-West relations in Europe; the external relations of China and Japan, especially with the USA and USSR; decolonization; conflict in the developing world. Lectures: MT and HT. Tutorials: any term.

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WIOX 380 Political Science: Modern British Government and Politics

A study of the structure, powers, and operations of modern British government: the Crown, Ministers, Parliament, elections, parties and pressure groups, the legislative process; Government departments, agencies and regulatory bodies; local authorities; administrative jurisdiction. Lectures: all three terms. Tutorials: any term.
Prerequisite: WIOX 371 or an equivalent course.

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WIOX 381 Psychology: Developmental Psychology

Psychological development: the biological and physiological, environmental and hereditary influences which affect development in humans; evidence from comparative studies; development of intelligence and personality; sex differences; developmental aspects of perceptual and cognitive processes.
Prerequisite: Psychology 101. Lectures: MT and TT. Tutorials: TT recommended.

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WIOX 382 Psychology: Social Psychology

The biological and cultural background to social behaviour; comparison of animal and human social behaviour; communication and social interaction; behaviour in organizations; social relationships and exchange processes; cognitive social psychology.
Prerequisite: Psychology 101. Lectures: MT. Tutorials: MT recommended.

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WIOX 383 Psychology: Individual Differences

Origins and development of differences in human abilities, personalities, and attributes; their analysis, measurement, and understanding.
Prerequisite: Psychology 101. Lectures: MT and HT. Tutorials: HT recommended.

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WIOX 384 Psychology: Psychological Disorders

The "abnormal" nature of abnormal behaviour; theories and classifications of abnormal behaviour; causes and treatment.
Prerequisite: Psychology 101. Lectures: HT. Tutorials: HT recommended.

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WIOX 390 Specially Arranged Subjects

Specially arranged tutorial courses in some subject areas other than those covered by the WIOX 311-384 courses might also be possible. A WIOX 390 is not simply what would be called an "independent study" course at Williams. Rather, a WIOX 390 is normally a "paper" (course) that is regularly offered at Oxford as either a required or optional part of the degree in various subjects. For a list of all the "papers" that make up the degree requirements in various disciplines, students should consult the University of Oxford Examination Regulations, a recent copy of which can be found in the Dean's Office. Important guidelines for how to make sense of this complex and weighty tome (the equivalent of the Williams College Bulletin) are available from the Dean's Office and also from the director. Much easier to use are the web sites belonging to the individual departments or "faculties" at Oxford University (e.g., History, Philosophy, etc.); for lists of regular papers, go to the lecture lists or "schemes" on the faculty web pages. It is easier to find tutors for a WIOX 390 in some fields (Classics, English, History, Philosophy, Theology, etc.) than in others (Psychology, the natural sciences, etc) and students should realize that it is not always possible for the Programme to accommodate their requests.
A sample list of Specially Arranged Subjects (WIOX 390) staffed during the past few years is offered below. This list is not comprehensive. Furthermore, students who wish to undertake a WIOX 390 course are encouraged to consult the Examination Regulations rather than simply repeat what other students in the past have done.

390 Anthropology: South Asia-Caste and Hinduism
390 Archaeology: The Transformation of the Celtic World, 500 BC-AD 100
390 Art History: Egyptian Art, Architecture and Artefacts
390 Art History: Art Under the Roman Empire, AD 14-337
390 Art History: Anglo-Saxon Archaeology of the Early Christian Period
390 Art History: Greek Art and Architecture
390 Art History: Modern Art
390 Art Studio: Anatomical Drawing
390 Art Studio: Figure Drawing (various levels)
390 Astrophysics: Stellar Structure and Cosmology
390 Biology: Health and Disease
390 Chemistry: Organic Chemistry
390 Chemistry: Physical Chemistry
390 Chemistry: Solid State Chemistry
390 Classics: Cicero and Cataline
390 Classics: Greek Literature of the 5th Century B.C.
390 Classics: Homer, Odyssey, in Greek or in Translation
390 Classics: Latin Literature of the First Century BC
390 Classics: New Testament Greek
390 Classics and English: Epic (Homer, Virgil, Milton)
390 Classics and English: Influence of Latin Literature on 20th Century Poetry
390 Classics and English: Pastoral
390 English: Creative Writing
390 German: The German Novel Since 1945
390 History: Modern Jewish History
390 History: The Near East in the Age of Justinian and Muhammad, 527-c.700
390 History: War and Reconstruction: Ideas, Politics and Social Change
390 Jewish Studies: Biblical Hebrew
390 History: War of the Roses
390 Law: Constitutional Law
390 Law: Jurisprudence
390 Philosophy: Frege, Russell, and Wittgenstein
390 Philosophy: Philosophy of Mathematics
390 Physics: Thermodynamics
390 Physics: Quantum Physics
390 Political Science: Questions in Tibetan History, Politics, and Culture
390 Political Science: British Foreign Relations
390 Political Science: Politics of Sub-Saharan Africa
390 Psychology: Brain and Behaviour
390 Psychology: Language and Cognition
390 Psychology: Multisensory Perception
390 Psychology: Psychology of Religion
390 Religion: Selected Topics (Old Testament)-Prophecy
390 Religion: Aquinas
390 Religion: Augustine
390 Religion: Christology from Kant to Troeltsch, 1789-1914
390 Religion: History and Theology of Western Christianity, various periods
390 Religion: Jesus and the Gospels
390 Religion: Religions and Mythologies of the Ancient Near East
390 Religion: The Classic Period of Islam
390 Sociology: Sociology of Industrial Societies
390 Sociology: Sociology of Religion

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NON-CREDIT FOREIGN LANGUAGE STUDY

In addition to their regular tutorial courses, students may begin or continue the study of a wide range of foreign languages on a non-credit basis through a variety of arrangements available through the University as well as a number of other educational and cultural institutions in the city of Oxford. The Programme normally subsidizes such study.

STUDENT LIFE

By virtue of the fact that, while in Oxford, they are officially Visiting Students at the University-and full members of Exeter College-Williams students are offered every opportunity to become fully integrated into student life in Oxford. Both Exeter College and Oxford University are home to an exceptional variety of sports clubs, debating societies, interest groups, cultural organizations, and social activities, virtually all of which are available to Visiting Student members of the University. Students are encouraged to participate fully in the social life of Exeter College-to dine in Hall as often as they wish, to frequent the College bar, to use the College's athletic facilities, and to become members of the various College clubs and organizations. Furthermore, Williams students also have access to the University's athletic events, concerts, theatrical productions, museums, and libraries. All Williams students in Oxford are provided with membership in the Oxford Union, which, in addition to its debating activities and club rooms, possesses dining facilities and the largest lending library in the University.

At the Ephraim Williams House, all Williams students are housed in capacious double rooms and enjoy full access to the House's library, common rooms, laundry facilities, computer lab, and a large dining room, in which a weekly catered meal is served during the eight weeks of term. There are also a number of small kitchens in the House which students may use. All rooms are fully wired for high-speed internet access and are fully equipped with furnishings, bed linens, and a telephone. The grounds include a courtyard where basketball can be played, sheltered bike racks, barbecue facilities, and gardens. A number of student jobs are available during the academic year for students who wish to earn a little spending money by helping to maintain the facilities and organize Programme activities. Ephraim Williams House is a short bike or bus ride (or a twenty-minute walk) from Exeter College and the center of town, and is within easy walking distance of the University parks and the local shops, restaurants and banks of Summertown. The Programme will partially subsidize student bus passes or bicycle purchase or rental to facilitate travel around Oxford.

Before the academic year begins-at the end of September and in early October-ten days of orientation activities are scheduled. Students are expected to be in residence for all of these many activities, some of which take place in Ephraim Williams House, others at Exeter College. At this time students will become acquainted with the workings of the Programme, of Exeter College, and of the University, and will be familiarized with the rules and regulations they are expected to abide by during their residence in Oxford.

Throughout the academic year, provision will be made for trips to a number of sites of historical, cultural, or political interest. In the past these have included the Cotswolds, Stratford, Stonehenge, Bath, Wells, Warwick Castle, Blenheim Palace, and various sites of interest in London. Students will also be given the opportunity to attend a number of theatrical productions and other cultural events. Oxford's proximity to London gives students ready access to that city's multiple attractions and many resources. The Oxford-London train service is frequent and the journey takes just over an hour. The buses to London run even more regularly (and are cheaper), and the one-way journey takes about ninety minutes.

During the summer before students arrive in Oxford, they will receive a copy of the latest edition of Ephs Among the Dreaming Spires, which will further explain the perks, policies, and procedures of the Programme, the rules and regulations they are expected to follow, and tips for how best to enjoy a fulfilling year in and around Oxford.

ILLNESS AND INSURANCE

Students must ensure they are covered either by the Williams College health insurance policy or by some other comprehensive health insurance plan (generally a family health insurance policy). While in Britain, students will be covered by the National Health Service (NHS) for routine visits at the Group Medical Practice used by Exeter College and for emergency hospital treatment. The programme also works with a physician in private practice attached to a local private hospital. +Prescription drugs are available through the NHS for a nominal fee. There are limited outpatient psychological counseling services available through the NHS and the Programme, although, as Visiting Students at the University, Williams students are entitled to make use of the University Counseling Centre. Any extensive or long-term counseling, however, would need to be covered by the student's personal health insurance policy. Finally, students are not likely to be covered under the NHS for medical services received in foreign countries, especially those countries that do not enjoy membership of the European Union.

FEES

The tuition and room fees paid by students on the Williams-Exeter Programme at Oxford are the same as those for a year spent in residence at Williams. Students are responsible for some of their own meals and for all of their personal expenses. They are also responsible for the cost of their air travel to and from Britain, although they may select to take the group flight to London arranged by the Programme at competitive rates. They are provided with three meals a day for the first four or five days in Oxford and with a weekly catered meal in Ephraim Williams House during the eight weeks of term. They may also eat breakfast, lunch, and/or dinner on any day of the week at Exeter. Students will not be charged the full Williams board fee during their year in Oxford, but they will pay a proportion of the board fee to help cover these costs. For planning purposes, students and their parents should expect the cost of a year on the Programme to be roughly the same as a year at Williams. Financial aid eligibility will be figured on the usual basis of tuition, fees, room, board, and personal and book expenses, as if the student were at Williams for the year. Similarly, the normal self-help contribution would be expected. Since the academic year ends later at Oxford than at Williams, the summer earning expectations for students for the following year will be reduced by one half and the difference will be made up by additional Williams aid.

APPLICATION

Admission to the Programme is on a competitive but flexible basis. Students must apply to the Dean's Office by the prescribed deadline (normally early in February) and, prior to applying, should consult with the chair of their major department. Any questions students might have about curricular offerings at Oxford can also be raised with the director of the Programme in Oxford. In addition to completing the formal application form, students can expect to be interviewed at Williams and will subsequently need to complete an application for Visiting Student status at Oxford University. All admissions to the Programme are subject to approval by Exeter College. Students can expect to be notified of acceptance before Spring Break. It is normally expected that they will have completed the College's distribution requirement by the end of their sophomore year. In making its decisions, the Admissions Committee of the Williams-Exeter Programme at Oxford University takes student GPA into account, expects all applicants to have demonstrated capacity for rigorous independent work and extensive essay writing, and looks favorably on those students whose intellectual maturity, curiosity and enthusiasm would best prepare them for a demanding course of study in Oxford. All applicants must identify two Williams faculty members who are willing to provide references. Because of the emphasis at Oxford on weekly written work for each tutorial course, at least one of those faculty members should be able to offer an assessment of the applicant's writing ability.