ART (Div. I)

Chair, Associate Professor GUY M. HEDREEN

Professors: EDGERTON, EPPING*, FILIPCZAK, HAXTHAUSEN, E. J. JOHNSON***, OCKMAN, TAKENAGA. Visiting Clark Professor: WALLACE§§§. Associate Professors: HEDREEN, JANG*, LALEIAN**, LEVIN**, MCGOWAN. Assistant Professors: GLIER, LEWIS, PODMORE*. Visiting Assistant Professor: CAFRITZ. Lecturers: CONFORTI§, SATTERTHWAITE, L. SHEARER§. Senior Lecturer: E. GRUDIN. Visiting Clark Lecturer: SHAFFER§. Part-time Lecturers: DIGGS, JACKSON, L. JOHNSON§, MCCALLUM§, H. SHEARER§. Visiting Part-time Lecturers: BENEDICT§§§, BUSH§, GANZ§, A. REICHERT§§§. Arthur Levitt, Jr. '52 Artist in Residence: HARE§.


Two routes are offered, the emphasis of the first being on the history of art and the second on creative work in studio.

Sequence courses

ArtH 101-102 Introduction to Western Art History

ArtS 100 Drawing I, or its equivalent as agreed by the Department, to be taken by the end of the junior year

ArtH 301 Methods of Art History

One Seminar or Graduate Course

Parallel courses

Any five additional semester courses of art history including three concerned with the following: 1) a period of western art prior to 1800, 2) a period, western or non-western, prior to 1400 and 3) non-western art.

Sequence courses

ArtS 100 or ArtS 103 Drawing I

ArtS 230 Drawing II

ArtH 101-102 Introduction to Western Art History

Any three of the 200-level ArtS studio courses in three different media

ArtS 319 Junior Seminar

Any two of the 300-level ArtS courses


One of the 300-level ArtS courses and ArtS 418T Senior Tutorial

Art History Route: The history of art is different from other historical disciplines in that it is founded on direct visual confrontation with objects that are both concretely present and yet documents of the past. We concentrate on architecture, painting, sculpture-the richest visual expressions of culture. Since works of art embody human experience, we use the work of all other disciplines to understand them, such as social history, perceptual psychology, engineering, psychoanalysis, and archaeology. Because of its concentration on the visual experience, the art history major increases one's ability to observe and to use those observations as the basis for critical thought.

ArtH 101-102 introduces students to a series of critical studies of important works selected from the history of western art from antiquity to the present. The critical approach of the introductory course is maintained in all further courses, especially by assigned study of original works in the Williams College Museum of Art, Chapin Library, and the Clark Art Institute.

An introductory studio course, ArtS 100, in which no artistic talent or prior experience are assumed, provides vital training in what is a visual as well as a verbal discipline. The requirement of a course in non-western art expands majors' geographic as well as cultural horizons, and the requirement of two courses in art from periods prior to 1800 provides a necessary concentration on earlier moments in culture. (As the contemporary architect, Philip Johnson, said, "You cannot not know history"). The junior course (ArtH 301) develops awareness of the theoretical implications, as well as the possibilities and limitations of different art-historical methods. The requirement of a seminar or graduate course in the senior year enables students to apply that knowledge of methodology to their most specialized work in the art history route.

Art Studio Route: The studio division of the Art major has been structured to foster the development of a critical understanding of making art; to support creative interests and to develop students' perceptions and imaginations as they investigate a variety of visual media. Drawing I, ArtS 100 or ArtS 103, serve as an introduction to the basic drawing and design principles which establish the foundation for the development of visual expression. ArtH 101-102, an introduction to the history of western art, provides part of the necessary background in the critical analysis of art. The 200-level ArtS courses provide opportunities to learn the elements of some of the principal visual arts media: architecture, painting, photography, printmaking, sculpture, and video. These courses combine technical foundations in the medium with analysis of the interrelation of visual form and content. The 300- and 400-level courses place a greater emphasis on the application of appropriate visual skills and strategies to particular thematic concerns, and to the development of the student's individual vision. All studio art seniors exhibit their work in the Williams College Museum of Art as a part of the requirements for the major.

Production requirements for the major: All art studio majors are required to earn four production credits by participating in relevant studio activities. These credits should be planned in consultation with a studio faculty advisor.

Contract Major in Architecture

In consultation with members of the architecture advisory committee, students may develop a contract major in architecture. Courses should normally be selected from ArtS and ArtH courses focused on architecture. Interested students must meet with a member of the architecture advisory committee early in the second semester of the sophomore year. Students proposing a contract major should have completed or be enrolled in ArtH 101-102 and ArtS 100. Each contract major must be approved by the C.E.P.

Architecture Advisory Committee: Professor: E. J. JOHNSON. Assistant Professor: LEWIS. Lecturers: MCCALLUM, SATTERTHWAITE.


First Digit

The introductory courses in both art history and studio have 100-level numbers and are prerequisites for most other courses in the department. The distinction between 200- and 300-level offerings is either one of difficulty or of the sequence in which material is best taken. Also, lecture courses with no prerequisite have a 100- or 200-level number. The 400-level seminars and tutorials are intended for advanced students, usually senior majors.

Middle Digit

Art History (ArtH)

Middle digit distinguishes courses according to geographical area, or time span covered. 0 = general; 1 = Ancient; 2 = Medieval; 3 = fifteenth, sixteenth century; 4 = seventeenth, eighteenth century; 5 = nineteenth century; 6 = twentieth century; 7 = Asian; 8 = African; 9 = independents, honors.

Art Studio (ArtS)

Middle digit distinguishes introductory and general courses from those specialized in different media and arts. 0 = introductory; 1 = general; 2 = architecture; 3 = drawing; 4 = painting; 5 = photography; 6 = printmaking; 7 = sculpture; 8 = video; 9 = independents, honors.


Students who wish to become candidates for the degree with honors must show prior evidence of superior performance in the major as well as research capabilities to carry out the proposed project.

Art History:

In order for a project to be considered, the candidate 1) must have arranged for an advisor, and (in consultation with the advisor) a second reader to supervise and evaluate the project 2) should normally have had one course with the advisor. In addition, the topic must be within the advisor's areas of competence and should normally be related to course work which the student has done previously. In the case of an interdisciplinary proposal, the second reader should normally come from the other discipline.

The student submits a 2-page proposal including a statement about the preparation for the project, a description of the topic and a general bibliography. Following approval by the faculty advisor and second reader, this proposal is reviewed by the entire art faculty, who have the option to request revisions and to refuse the proposal. Students should keep in mind that a thesis in art history is not necessary for admission to graduate study.

It is the responsibility of the candidate to select one of the following routes and to meet all deadlines. Students who are not making satisfactory progress on their research and writing will not be allowed to continue with the thesis. The completion of the requirements, however, will not guarantee a degree with honors. The degree with honors will be awarded for projects demonstrating a high degree of scholarly achievement and self- motivation. All proposals must be submitted according to the guidelines set out below. The timetable for submission of work, including specific dates, is available in the Art Department office.

Students may select one of the following options.

1) Full Year Thesis: Research and writing will be carried out during both semesters and WSP of the senior year (students should register for ArtH 493-W031-494). The thesis topic, advisor and second reader must be determined by April 15 of junior year. Students who are on overseas programs junior year are advised to make arrangements prior to their departure, but they may submit a final proposal two weeks before the fall semester of senior year if they have made the necessary arrangements. After the thesis is submitted, the candidate for honors shall present an oral defense before faculty and peers.

2) Half-Year Thesis: Research and writing will be carried out during fall term and winter study or during winter study and spring term (Students should register for ArtH 493-W031 or W031-ArtH 494). For students who choose to complete the mini-thesis in the Fall, proposals must be submitted by April 15 of the junior year. For those planning to complete the mini-thesis in the Spring, proposals must be submitted by November 1.

A student's project is judged by two members of the department, the advisor and second reader; in the case of an interdisciplinary project, a member of the art department and a member of the other relevant department or program function as advisor and second reader. In rare cases, a third reader may be appointed by the department at the request of the advisor or second reader.

All routes require that one course and one WSP, in addition to the ten required courses for the major, be dedicated to the honors project.

Art Studio:

The Art studio division of the Art Department offers a specialization route toward departmental honors. This route, which requires the completion of a substantial body of independently produced visual work, consists of two courses constituting a clearly interrelated pattern of study. The first of these must be a WSP 033 in the senior year, followed by ArtS 418T Senior Tutorials.

In the spring of their junior year, students should consult with a prospective faculty advisor and declare their intent to pursue the degree with honors to the Department Chair. In September of the student's senior year, the student will meet with his/her faculty advisor to discuss the writing of the required honors prospectus. The prospectus should present a coherent proposal, indicating the range of the thesis, the questions to be investigated, the media which will be utilized, and a selected bibliography. Two weeks before WSP registration, in the fall of the student's senior year, three copies of this prospectus should be submitted: one to the faculty advisor, the second to the faculty member teaching ArtS 418T, and the third to the Department Chair. The studio faculty will review the prospectuses and the Department Chair will inform students of their decisions. Should a student's honors prospectus be approved, the student must enroll in WSP 033 and devote the winter study period to realizing a substantial amount of work toward the project. Members of the studio faculty will review this work in February and determine whether progress is sufficiently substantial to allow a student to continue to pursue the degree with honors.

To be considered for Honors a student must successfully complete all requirements for the major. Each Honors candidate will be expected to have demonstrated the ability to work independently and the understanding of what is required to develop a body of work that investigates a thesis. The project will culminate in a presentation agreed upon by the student, the faculty adviser, and the faculty tutor teaching ArtS 418T. All candidates will be required to present the department with a set of no fewer than twenty slides that document the work completed during the project. This documentation will be accompanied by a written description of the project.

The awarding of Honors will be decided by the studio faculty of the department, on the recommendation of the student's adviser and the faculty member teaching ArtS 418T, based on performance in the two related courses. Highest Honors are normally awarded only to students whose performance in both the honors program and other courses in the major has been exceptional.


Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts in Art History

The degree is normally awarded upon successful completion of two years of resident graduate study. To earn the degree the student must earn a grade of at least B- in each of ten courses, at least six of which must be graduate seminars (including ArtH 504), and fulfill the language requirement in the manner described below. In special circumstances credit may be given for up to two courses of graduate work satisfactorily completed elsewhere.

In addition to completing the required courses, students must participate in a group study trip to Europe during Winter Study Period in the first year, complete a qualifying paper in January of the second year, and pass an oral exam or present a shortened version of the qualifying paper in the graduate symposium (held in late May) at the end of the second year.

Senior art majors may enroll in graduate seminars, space permitting, with the permission of the instructor.


Reading proficiency in two European languages is required for the M.A. degree in art history at Williams, and provision for attainment of this qualification is an integral part of the program of study. Of these two, German is required, and French is recommended. Elementary and intermediate undergraduate courses offered by the language departments are open to graduate students, and the Graduate Program offers advanced, one-semester courses in French and German art-history readings. A student who begins elementary language study after enrollment in the Program should expect to take a sequence of courses. Details may be obtained from the Graduate Program Office. Entering students with some previous language background will be asked to take a standard reading examination for purposes of placement. A score of 500 is required for admission to the advanced course. Students with scores below 500 will be enrolled in elementary language courses. Students should aim to complete all language work no later than the end of the third semester.

To satisfy the requirement in each of the two required languages, a student must (a) score 700 or better on the CEEB reading examination upon enrollment in the program or, (b) complete satisfactorily (B- or better) and punctually all assignments and tests in the advanced courses. The same standards and expectations apply to language courses as to other courses and seminars.

Second-year students who have successfully completed German 501-502 and have independently developed their German language skills during the summer may, before the commencement of their third semester of study, arrange to take a two-hour translation examination administered by the Graduate Program. Students who pass the examination are exempted from German 509.

If appropriate to his or her course of study, a student may petition to substitute another language for French. Instruction in Spanish, Russian, Latin, and Greek is regularly offered in the undergraduate curriculum, whereas independent arrangements must be made for Italian, Dutch, and other languages.