In the Fall of 1988 Williams introduced a Tutorial Program. Students are invited to examine the tutorial offerings carefully in order to understand fully the substantive content of each tutorial and its mode of operation. A list of the tutorials to be offered in 1998-99 is included in this section, and a complete description of each may be found in the relevant department's section of this catalogue. No student is required to take a tutorial, but any student who has the appropriate qualifications is invited to do so.

While the details of the functioning of tutorials will vary in order to accommodate the diverse subject matter of the various departments of the College, there are important common characteristics to which specific attention may be called.

Tutorials place a much greater weight on student participation than do regular courses or even small seminars. In general each tutorial will consist of two students meeting with the tutor for one hour or 75 minutes each week. At each meeting one student will make a prepared presentation-read a prepared essay, work a set of problems, report on laboratory exercises, examine a work of art, etc.-and the other student and the tutor will question, probe, push the student who is presenting her work about various aspects of the presentation. The student then must respond on the spot to these probings and questions. A tutorial is directly concerned with teaching students about arguments, about arriving at and defending a position, and about responding on the spot to suggestions and questions. This kind of exercise will help the student gain insight and understanding of what knowledge is and how it is accumulated and how there can be different interpretations and different understandings of the same phenomenon. The student presentation drives the tutorial, and the presentation by the student obviously means that student preparation and response are crucial to an effective tutorial. The presentation is based on assigned and suggested reading and other work (laboratory, art work, theatre, etc.) by the tutor.

In some tutorials both students will make a shorter presentation each week and both will react and comment on the other's presentation. In all cases the tutorial is built around presentations by students.

In most instances there will be no more than 10 students in a tutorial. In the first and last week of the semester, the whole group will meet together, and in the 10 weeks in between students will meet in pairs with their tutor. Students should therefore expect to make 5 presentations that occupy about an hour, or 10 that require one half hour. Assignments will be designed such that the student should, in general, be required to spend no more time over a week preparing for the tutorial than for a conventional course. It is likely however that as a student begins her first tutorial course, she will have to spend somewhat more time preparing for it than she does for her other courses. Once the routine becomes more established and familiar, the tutorial is expected to require about the same total time per week as does a regular course. The student should appreciate, however, that the weekly tutorials require exceptional regularity and on time performance.

Grading, testing, and similar details will be described by the tutor at the first meeting of the entire group.

Drops and Adds. Because of the particular arrangements of the tutorial it is necessary to limit adds to the first week of classes only. No adds can be made after that time. Spaces in tutorials are limited, and a late drop may unfairly deprive another student of an opportunity. Students are urged therefore to think very carefully about their initial decisions.

PLEASE NOTE: Tutorials cannot be taken on a pass/fail grading basis.

More Information. Students may obtain detailed information about a specific tutorial from the assigned tutor.

Tutorials Offered 1998-99

American Maritime Studies
AMS/ENGL 231T(F,S) Literature of the Sea Bercaw Edwards, Beegel

Anthropology and Sociology
ANTH 312T(F) The Past and Future of Human Societies:
The Mystery of Cultural Evolution* Foias

THEA/ARTS 310T(F) Sited, Scripted Public Acts Brothers and Diggs
ARTS 364T(F) Artists' Books Takenaga
ARTS 418T(S) Senior Tutorial Takenaga

ASTR 203T(F) Solar System Astrophysics Pasachoff

BIOL 402T/
ENVI 404T(S) Current Issues in Ecology Meyer

CHEM 312T(F) Heterocyclic Chemistry Markgraf
CHEM 314T(S) A Theoretical Approach to Biological Phenomena Peacock-López

ENGL 347T(S) Henry James L. Graver

GEOS 253T(F) Baja California Geology and Ecology M. Johnson
GEOS 404T(S) Geology of the Appalachians Karabinos

HIST 350T(S) History, Nostalgia, and the Politics of Collective Memory Waters
HIST 354T(S) The Anglo-American World in the Eighteenth Century:
War, Society, and Politics, 1700-1775 R. Dalzell

MUS 203T(F), 204T(S) Composition Suderburg, Kechley
MUS 402T(S) Senior Seminar in Music Bloxam

PHIL 215T(S) Conceptions of Human Nature Mladenovic

PHYS 402T(S) Applications of Quantum Mechanics Kramer
PHYS 411T(F) Classical Mechanics and Fluid Mechanics Aalberts

Political Science
PSCI 331T(F) Non-Profit Organization and Community Change A. Willingham

PSYC 316T(F) Clinical Neuroscience Solomon

REL 270T(S) Father Abraham: The First Patriarch Darrow

THEA/ARTS 310T(F) Sited, Scripted Public Acts Brothers and Diggs
THEA 322T(S) Performance Criticism Bean