Office of The RegistrarWilliams College

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Winter Study Courses 1998

 

WINTER STUDY PROGRAM

REMINDERS ABOUT WSP REGISTRATION

All students who will be on campus during the 1997-98 academic year must register for WSP. Registration will take place in the early part of fall semester. If you are registered for a senior thesis in the fall which must be continued through Winter Study by departmental rules, you will be registered for your Winter Study Project automatically. In every other case, you must complete registration. First-year students are required to participate in a Winter Study that will take place on campus; they are not allowed to do 99's.

Even if you plan to take a 99, or the instructor of your first choice accepts you during the registration period, there are many things that can happen between registration and the beginning of Winter Study to upset your first choice, so you must list five choices. You should try to make one of your choices a project with a larger enrollment, not that it will guarantee you a project, but it will increase your chances.

If you think your time may be restricted in any way (ski meets, interviews, etc.), clear these restrictions with the instructor before signing up for his/her project.

Remember, for cross-listed projects, you should sign up for the subject you want to appear on your record.

For many beginning language courses, you are required to take the WSP Sustaining Program in addition to your regular project. You will be automatically enrolled in this Sustaining Program, so no one should list this as a choice.

The grade of honors is reserved for outstanding or exceptional work. Individual instructors may specify minimum standards for the grade, but normally, fewer than one out of ten students will qualify. A grade of pass means the student has performed satisfactorily. A grade of perfunctory pass signifies that a student's work has been significantly lacking but is just adequate to deserve a pass.

If you have any questions about a project, see the instructor before you register.

Finally, all work for WSP must be completed and submitted to the instructor no later than Thursday, January 29th. Only the Dean can grant an extension beyond this date.

WINTER STUDY 99'S

Sophomores, juniors and seniors are eligible to propose "99's," independent projects arranged with faculty sponsors, conducted in lieu of regular Winter Study courses. Perhaps you have encountered an interesting idea in one of your courses which you would like to study in more depth, or you may have an interest not covered in the regular curriculum. In recent years students have undertaken in-depth studies of particular literary works, interned in government offices, assisted in foreign and domestic medical clinics, conducted field work in economics in developing countries, and given performances illustrating the history of American dance. Although some 99's involve travel away from campus, there are many opportunities to pursue intellectual or artistic goals here in Williamstown.

99 forms are available in the Registrar's Office. The deadline for submitting the proposals to faculty sponsors is Thursday, 25 September.

AFRICAN AND MIDDLE EASTERN STUDIES

AMES 025 From the Classical to the Islamic Worlds in Jordan and Syria (Same as Religion 025)

(See under Religion for full description.)

AMES 031 Senior Thesis

To be taken by candidates for honors by the thesis route in African and Middle Eastern Studies.

AFRO-AMERICAN STUDIES

AAS 030 Senior Project

To be taken by students registered for Afro-American Studies 491 who are candidates for honors.

AMERICAN STUDIES

AMST 010 American Catholicism in the Novels of Andrew Greeley (Same as History 010)

(See under History for full description.)

AMST 015 "Look! Up in the Sky!": The Comic Book Superhero in American Popular Culture, 1938-1988 (Same as History 015)

(See under History for full description.)

AMST 016 "Once Upon a Time:" American History through Historical Fiction (Same as History 016)

(See under History for full description.)

AMST 017 Singing School: Popular Protestant American Religious Music (Same as Music 017 and Special 017)

(See under Special for full description.)

AMST 030 Senior Honors Project

To be taken by students registered for American Studies 491 or 492.

ANTHROPOLOGY AND SOCIOLOGY

ANTHROPOLOGY

ANTH 031 Senior Thesis

To be taken by students registered for Anthropology 493-494.

SOCIOLOGY

SOC 031 Senior Thesis

To be taken by students registered for Sociology 493-494.

ART

ARTH 010 Chinese Calligraphy: Theory and Practice

This course will offer students an opportunity to acquire an understanding of the theoretical and aesthetic principles of Chinese calligraphy as one of the highest art forms in China practiced by the literati. We will also look into the relationship between Chinese painting and calligraphy from various perspectives: artistic theories, techniques, and the practice of inscribing painting in China. Technical instruction will be included in this class.
Evaluation is based on class participation and a project of choice (scholarly or artistic). The class will meet two times per week for three hours.
No prerequisites. Enrollment limited to 15.
Meeting time: mornings.

JANG

ARTH 011 Exhibitionism: The Naked Truth About Art Exhibitions

What exactly is put on public display in an art exhibition? Is it cultural spectacle or personal polemic? Who is the auteur: the artist or the curator? These and other issues of exhibition theory and practice will be discussed in regard to real and hypothetical examples. In addition to dissecting exhibitions at WCMA and the Clark (and consulting with their curators), the class will study historically significant events such as the Impressionist exhibitions and the Armory Show. Two trips to New York will allow critiques of shows currently on view there and discussions with New York curators. Projects will include writing reviews and inventing various types of exhibitions. In addition, the group will propose an actual exhibition for a small gallery in WCMA. The class will meet two hours, two or three times a week, plus two day-trips to New York.
Students will be evaluated on class participation, two reviews of exhibitions, and two exhibition proposals.
No prerequisite. Enrollment limited to 10.
Cost to student: $50 for book, photocopies, and field trips.
Meeting time: afternoons.

NANCY MOWLL MATHEWS (Instructor)
E. J. JOHNSON (Sponsor)

Nancy Mowll Mathews has organized over fifty art exhibitions and published eight books investigating various aspects of European and American modernism. She has her Ph.D. in art history from NYU's Institute of Fine Arts and was formerly Associate Professor at Randolph-Macon Women's College. She is Eugenie Prendergast Curator in the Williams College Museum of Art and teaches in the Williams College Graduate Program in the History of Art.

ARTH 012 Arts in Pharonic Egypt

The course is a study of the origins and developments in Egyptian major arts and architecture from the start of the Pharonic era until the time of the Romans. Considerable attention will also be paid to the "minor arts" such as small sculpture, jewelry, and other important crafts, as independent works and their relationship in style and intent to the major sculpture and painting of their day. However, unlike many Egyptian art courses, it will not limit itself to a study of the arts per sé but will attempt to see them in the larger context of the culture, country, personages, and beliefs that created and modified them. This will include some attention to geology, geography, climatology, politics, historical events, and religion, all necessary to present the arts in their proper context as highly integrated parts of the civilization and not standing alone.
Art is a window into a historical period and way of life, and in many cases is our only source of information. Sometimes the information is inaccurate and the intent then becomes to study actual objects versus their representations in the major arts and see how close to or far from reality the representations are. Certain aspects of the study can be illuminated by the crafts and living methods of modern rural Egypt, in some ways a time-capsule, nearly unchanged from the Pharonic era. The goal is to appreciate and understand the masterly and often delightful creations of this talented and occasionally innovative people.
There are no prerequisites beyond interest, a questioning mind, and a schedule which permits attending the classes. The course will be a slide-illustrated lecture with time for questions and discussion. The slides were taken by the lecturer in Egypt and from the great museum collections. It is hoped there will be opportunity to see or utilize the Williams College Museum of Art's Egyptian collection. The text, which supplements the lectures, is The Art and Architecture of Ancient Egypt by W. Stevenson Smith, and there will be an accompanying packet on history, as well as handouts on other appropriate topics as they come up.
An acceptable 10-page research paper, to be approved by the instructor and handed in the last Wednesday of lecture, is required.
Meeting time: mornings.

LENORE CONGDON (Instructor)
OCKMAN (Sponsor)

Lenore Congdon, Ph.D. in Art History from Harvard, has lectured on Egyptian art and culture at Williams as well as other colleges and museums in New England. A member of the International Association of Egyptologists and The American Research Center in Egypt, Dr. Congdon has traveled and photographed extensively in Egypt.

ARTH 014 Nearby Campuses

Arguably the most complex site designs hereabouts, often involving many buildings and even hundreds of acres, are those "institutional" complexes involving education, although in Albany there are, as well, at least two office campuses (one of the public and the other of the private sector), and, near Troy, an industrial park campus. The purpose of this course is to study, during each week, these multi-building sites, both through one day of classroom discussions on readings and through two days of site visits, should the weather cooperate. That means, during the three-and-half week Winter Study Period, we may visit some eight (or so) campuses which should represent the spectrum of regional examples, among which could be: a 1960s and a 1980s office as well as industrial campus; a large public university; boarding schools on a "green field" site and on a converted estate; a community (commuters') college; a private residential college; a campus in an older downtown setting; and a campus founded two centuries ago. The site visits will be directed to how such problems as circulation, utilities (and new technologies), building interrelationships and functions, fund-raising campaigns, historic preservation, open space, and interactions with adjacent environments have been historically solved. We should encounter engineers, architects, maintenance staff, faculty and students, administrators such as treasures, and others creating or using these spaces. A final paper should compare a (distant?) campus of one's own choosing with the panoply of reading and regional examples proffered in this course.
Cost to student: $50 estimated for (van) travel and readings.
Meeting time: afternoons.

SATTERTHWAITE

ART HISTORY

ARTH 031 Senior Thesis

To be taken by students registered for ArtH 493, 494.

ARTH 033 Honors Independent Study

To be taken by candidates for honors by the independent study route.

ART STUDIO

ARTS 010 Icon Painting (Same as Russian 010)

(See under Russian for full description.)

ARTS 011 Non-Traditional Drawing

The definition of what constitutes drawing and how drawing is made has broadened tremendously in recent history. Many artists today, such as Donald Sultan, and Nancy Spero use a wide variety of previously unrecognized methods and materials to create their work.
This course will have students explore non-traditional methods of creating drawing. Students will experiment with unexpected and unusual materials, as well as use traditional media in an untraditional fashion. For example: methods might include pouncing, stenciling and staining; media might include soot, tar, and plant extract. There will be slide presentations of artists whose work incorporates non traditional methods and materials. There will also be class critiques following each assignment.
Grading takes into account attendance, effort, creativity, and participation. It is expected that student spend at least 12 hours per week on independent work outside of class.
Prerequisite: ArtS 100. Enrollment limited to 15.
Cost to student: $40
Meeting time: afternoons.

JANE MASTERS (Instructor)
PODMORE (Sponsor)

Jane Masters is an artist who makes drawings and sculptures. She lives and works between Bennington, VT and New York City. She received her MFA from San Diego, CA, and has exhibited throughout the country.

ARTS 013 Site-Specific Art

This course will introduce the student to environmental art and site-specific installations. Topics covered will include the history and development of environmental work from the Constructivists through present day artists, performance art in relation to environmental work including Happenings, basic art making concepts (Including repetition, direction, biomorphism), and the use of traditional and non-traditional materials. Discussions will include the place of installation art in the contemporary art world and in art history. A brief and basic introduction to methods and materials will lead quickly into a first assignment of a small classroom installation (1'x1'x1'). Students will spend the remainder of the time developing a larger scale site-specific project of a personal nature.
Students will be evaluated on the basis of regular attendance and class participation. Students will be expected to keep a daily journal/sketchbook, complete several small lab assignment, participate in discussions and critiques, and create one completed installation for a final open studio/exhibition. Class will meet twice a week for three hour sessions. In addition, students will be expected to work during open lab hours in the studio. Student will be expected to resolve outside time conflicts in favor of the course. Interested students should consult with the Department Chair prior to registration.
No prerequisites. Enrollment limited to 15.
Cost to student: $75 for supplies.
Meeting time: afternoon lectures and lab time.

RAY NEUFELD '91 (Instructor)
TAKANAGA (Sponsor)

Ray Neufeld '91 has exhibited his sculptural installations and drawings at galleries and museums from New York to Oregon. In addition he has worked on scenic and lighting design for theater and television.

ARTS 015 The Photo Essay

This course is designed to be a "hands on" exploration of this uniquely photographic narrative form. By way of introduction, the class will cover the evolution and history of the photo essay in this century, citing some of the profound social and cultural impacts it has had. The work of notable photographers such as W. Eugene Smith, Dorothea Lange, and other will be reviewed for inspiration and technique.
The emphasis of the class, however, will be on the student's producing photo essays of his or her own, and on group discussion and critiquing of the results. Since authenticity is a hallmark of the photo essay form, class discussion will include methods for how best to approach sensitive subjects, to be the "unobserved observer," and how to modify photographic technique accordingly. The month's study will culminate in a collaborative class project documenting "A Day in the Life of Williams College."
Students will be evaluated based on class and project participation, and the successful completion of photographic assignments. Since student photographic work will be in black and white photography, including film processing, printing and mounting, are prerequisites.
Lecture/discussion sessions will meet three days a week. Students will also be expected to spend extensive periods of time both shooting their photo essays and producing contact sheets and finished photographs in regularly scheduled darkroom labs.
Students who have completed ARTS 257 are eligible, as are those who demonstrate the required skills by submitting a portfolio of their work. Ownership of a 35mm SLR camera and a wide angle, normal and telephoto lens are recommended. Enrollment limited to 12.
Cost to student: $125 for film, paper, and chemicals.
Meeting time: morning classes; afternoon darkroom labs.

JOHN S. SEAKWOOD '71 (Instructor)
LALEIAN (Sponsor)

John Seakwood '71 is a widely published professional photographer with twenty years experience.

ARTS 033 Honors Independent Project

Independent study to be taken by candidates for honors in Art Studio.

ASIAN STUDIES

ASST 010 The Path to Bliss (Same as Religion 010)

This course introduces students to Buddhist thought both by comparing various Tibetan works such as The Path to Bliss, a meditation manual written by His Holiness the Fourteenth Dalai Lama, and by daily early morning meditation sessions. Our aim will be to provide a survey of Buddhist methods that are used to develop detachment, love, compassion and insight into the nature of reality.
Requirements: the reading of selected meditation manuals, weekly exams, and attendance at daily weekday early-morning (8:00 a.m.) meditation and discussion sessions.
No prerequisites. Enrollment limited to 20.
Meeting time: mornings.

JOSHUA and DIANE CUTLER (Instructors)
FROST (Sponsor)

Joshua and Diane Cutler are the Executive Director and the Associate Director of the Tibetan Buddhist Learning Center in Washington, New Jersey.

ASST 012 Chinese Popular Culture

How do the Chinese celebrate? Through readings, discussions and practical "hands on" experience we will explore how Chinese have traditionally celebrated popular holidays and religious festivals. Topics will include the religious and cultural meanings of the various festivals, regional differences in how holidays are celebrated, the roles of different members of the traditional Chinese family, the preparation (and eating!) of festival foods, calligraphy and taiji exercises.
Requirements: active participation in class sessions and a 10-page final paper.
No prerequisites.
Meeting time: afternoons.

CHEN

ASST 026 Poly-Japan: Cultural Diversity in Contemporary Japan (Same as Religion 026)

The travel course aims to introduce the students to the complexity of contemporary Japanese culture beyond stereotypes and simplification. Complexity will be experienced in four main different arenas: (i) locality, (ii) cultural production, (iii) lifestyles, and (iv) intercultural communication. We will sojourn in three well distinct cultural/geographical areas of Japan: the Tokyo region in western Japan (11 days), the Kansai region in central Japan (5 days), and Okinawa in the south (5 days). We will be able to familiarize ourselves with several aspects of culture and lifestyle in those areas. Particular attention will be devoted to museums, performing arts, temples and other historical sites, cuisine, dialectal differences (for the students of Japanese), political and economic issues. Meetings will be organized with Japanese university students to exchange ideas and impressions and promote intercultural understanding. Students will be required to observe carefully the Japanese cultural reality, formulate questions, and express their impressions in a journal that will be used for final grading.
Evaluation of the students will be based on their observations and comments both during the trip and in their journal. Interested students must consult with the instructor before registering for the course. Prior to departure, a two-day seminar for a total of six hours will be organized to give participants a basic orientation on Japan and the basic goals of the course.
No prerequisites. Enrollment limited to 20.
Cost to student: approximately $3500.

RAMBELLI

ASST 031 Senior Thesis

To be taken by all students who are candidates for honors in Asian Studies.

CHINESE

CHIN S.P. Sustaining Program for Chinese 101-102

Students registered for Chinese 101-102 are required to attend and pass the Chinese Sustaining Program. Classes meet Mondays, Tuesdays, and Thursdays from 9:00-9:50 a.m.
Requirements: regular attendance and active class participation.
Prerequisite: Chinese 101.
Cost to student: one Xerox packet.

TENG, YANG

JAPANESE

JAPN S.P. Sustaining Program for Japanese 101-102

Students registered for Japanese 101-102 are required to attend and pass the Japanese Sustaining Program. Classes meet Mondays, Tuesdays, and Thursdays from 9:00-9:50 a.m.
Requirements: regular attendance and active class participation.
Prerequisite: Japanese 101.
Cost to student: one Xerox packet.

KUWAI

ASTRONOMY

ASTR 016 Observational Astronomy

This course, meant for non-majors, will focus on the most basic aspects of astronomy and will be observing-intensive, taking full advantage of various telescopes housed on the Williams College observing deck. Topics to be covered will include the constellations and night sky in general, planets, the moon, the sun, stars, and galaxies. Study of these topics will require a mix of both day and night class sessions during which students will be required to make observations using binoculars, telescopes, and the naked eye. Student observations will be recorded in drawings, notes, and computer printouts and/or photographs.
Observing will take place on all class dates during which the sky is clear. On those days when the sky is cloudy, we will do in-class exercises or discuss current topics in astronomy such as results from the Hubble Space Telescope.
Enrollment limited to 15.
Meeting time: afternoons, with evening observing sessions.

S. Martin (Instructor)
Jay M. Pasachoff (Sponsor)

Stephan Martin, the Department's Observatory Supervisor/Instructor, received his B.A. in Physics and Astronomy from Colgate in 1989, and his M.A. in Physics from the University of Wyoming in 1993. Prior to coming to Williams, he worked as a Data Analyst at the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore.

ASPH 031 Senior Research

To be taken by students registered for Astrophysics 493, 494.

ASTR 031 Senior Research

To be taken by students registered for Astronomy 493, 494.

BIOLOGY

BIOL 010 Polish Cultural Heritage

We will examine the identity of the Polish people through study of their history, cooking, folkart, and literature. Class will begin with reading and discussion of major events in Polish history. Participants in the course will then prepare and consume four traditional Polish meals. We will try our hands at making intricately decorated Easter eggs, straw ornaments, and paper cutouts. We will also read and discuss a translation of one of the pivotal pieces of Polish literature, Pan Tadeusz. Students are expected to provide their own transportation to my kitchen which is about 1.5 miles from campus.
Evaluation will be based on participation and completion of a 10-page paper or, for students with special talents, a 5-page paper and completion of a work of folkart.
Enrollment limited to 8.
Cost to student: approximately $40 for books.
Meeting time: mornings.

LASKOWSKI

BIOL 011 Organisms with a B.A. Attitude

Lions, tigers, and bears, oh my! Or maybe ravens, slugs, and orchids. Whatever organism you think is the neatest, this is your chance to sing its praises! This course will celebrate various organisms featured in a variety of liberal arts disciplines--in literature, film, history, economics, etc. During the first few weeks as a class we'll look at a representative or two from each of the following groups: viruses and bacteria, insects, and plants. Each will be explored from the perspective of natural science, social science, and the humanities. For example, a presentation on cockroaches might combine readings from the book The cockroaches of Stay More by Donald Harington with a discussion of the evolutionary and social history of cockroaches. We might examine the genetic basis for kernel color in Indian corn, explore the plant's domestication in the New World, and cuisines that feature Zea mays. Each student will choose his/her favorite organism to research, incorporating and integrating all three liberal arts perspectives into his/her study. The results of that exploration will be submitted as a 10-page paper. In addition, each student will produce a piece of original work (for ex., a scientific experiment, a video project, or a piece of creative writing) centered around their chosen organism. During the last week of classes each student will share the major accomplishments of his/her multifaceted organism with the rest of the class in a brief class presentation.
Evaluation will be based on class attendance and on the final paper/creative project. Class will meet three times per week.
No prerequisites. Enrollment limited to 12.
Cost to student: approximately $30 for books.
Meeting time: afternoons.

ALTSCHULER

BIOL 012 Medical Ethics (Same as Special 012)

This course will examine contemporary issues in medical ethics. The first type of issue that we will discuss regards decisions that are made in the practice of medicine. For example, a current topic of great interest in this area is whether physicians should help a terminally ill patients end their own lives. Another example of this type of issue is whether a genetic counselor should perform a test to allow parents to learn the sex of their fetus, knowing that the parents will abort if the fetus is of a particular sex. A second type of ethical issue that we will investigate includes larger social issues related to health care. For example, should we ration the use of expensive medical technologies so that we can provide some minimal level of basic medical services for all of our citizens? Also, global problems such as AIDS will be examined; if expensive protease inhibitors prove to be effective treatment for HIV infection and AIDS, what are our obligations to the 90% of AIDS patients who live in developing countries? Finally, future problems such as what to do about the potential for cloning humans will be examined. In discussing these and other issues, we will attempt to understand the moral reasons underlying opposing positions. A major goal of the course is to help participants not only understand these difficult issues but also to develop their own reflections whenever possible.
Short reading will be assigned for each class, and active, thoughtful participation is expected. Students will have a choice of writing a 10-page paper regarding an issue of particular interest, or 3 short case commentaries. Students of all backgrounds, majors, and career goals are encouraged to enroll, including "nonscience persons."
No prerequisites. Enrollment limited to 15.
Cost to student: approximately $50 for books and articles.
Meeting time: afternoons.

MATTHEW ISSAC FOGG (Instructor)
THEILING (Sponsor)

Matt Fogg is a third year medical student at New York University where he recently completed the Arthur Zitrin Fellowship in Medical Ethics.

BIOL 013 Exercise Physiology, Diet, and Metabolism

This course will consider some of the complex interactions between diet, exercise, and the body's metabolism. A partial list of topics include: how different types of food are used in the body; how training influence metabolism; how metabolism influences performance; muscle metabolism during exercise; and long-term considerations of diet and health. The student can evaluate his/her exercise performance in the laboratory.
Method of evaluation and required activities: 2 short papers (2 pages) relating to assigned readings and a 3rd paper on a topic of the students' choosing will be required. Also, student will be required to maintain a personal log of food consumption and amount of exercise to calculate personal energy balance. The course will meet three times per week with occasional extra meetings for performance analysis and demonstrations.
No prerequisites. This course is intended for non-science majors. Enrollment limited to 30.
Cost to student: approximately $5 for reading packets.
Meeting time: mornings.

S. SWOAP

BIOL 014 Evolutionary Medicine

While the practice of medicine in the 50s and 60s was characterized by great optimism, that of the 80s and 90s is becoming increasingly pessimistic. Many diseases which should have been conquered are on the rise and frightening new ones keep appearing. Is there a fundamental failure in our approach to medicine? We will take an evolutionary and ecological perspective on this problem, considering the origins and potential treatments for various diseases in this light. The list of diseases we will consider includes various viral and bacterial infections (e.g. AIDS, Lyme disease, tuberculosis), skin and breast cancer, autoimmunity, diabetes, malaria, asthma, and prion based diseases. Class will meet three times per week and will be a combination of lecture and discussion. This course should be of interest to both the committed pre-med and the medically curious, so there is no prerequisite. Basics in evolution, ecology, and biology will be covered, at the same time that the potential for very sophisticated analysis of each disease.
Evaluation will be based on class participation and a final 10-page paper.
Enrollment limited to 20.
Cost to student: approximately $45 for books and a reading packet.
Meeting time: afternoons.

LEE VENOLIA (Instructor)
W. DEWITT (Sponsor)

The instructor is a former Assistant Professor in the Biology Department and is trained in genetics.

BIOL 015 Natural History of the Berkshires (Same as Environmental Studies 015)

We are fortunate in Williamstown to be surrounded by a variety of natural areas. In this course we will explore some of these natural areas, and study the natural history of the plants and animals that inhabit them. We will take field trips to a variety of sites to gain an appreciation for the diversity of natural communities that occur near Williamstown. Students will become familiar with common plants and will learn to identify them in winter. We will not neglect animals, although they are harder to observe. Students will learn to identify animal tracks and will look for overwintering insects. In addition, some field trips will be devoted to learning about birds. We will also consider how the climate, topography, and human uses of each site have shaped the ecological community, and discuss the adaptations that allow local animals and plants to survive New England's winters. The course will consist primarily of field trips, so students should be prepared to spend time outside. Snowshoes will be used if necessary.
Requirements: a 10-page paper and class participation.
No prerequisites. Enrollment limited to 12.
Cost to student: less than $40 for materials and snowshoe rental.
Meeting time: mornings and some all day field trips.

MEYER

BIOL 016 Moon Farm Video (Same as Environmental Studies 016)

The New England landscape is an ever-changing tapestry that is the product of physical, biological, and historical factors. One representative bit of this mosaic is the 60-acre Moon Lot nestled in the center of the Hopkins Memorial Forest. A subsistence farm from the Eighteenth Century until the mid-1950s, the Moon Farm was the subject of a 12-minute 16mm black-and-white film made by a WSP course in January, 1973. Since that time, the Moon Barn has been relocated to the entrance of the Hopkins Forest, woodlands have reclaimed much of the site, and media technology has undergone important changes. The objective of this course is to analyze and document the changes that have occurred on the site over the past quarter-century. The original film will be transferred to sVHS video format and new video footage will be taken and edited to produce a half-hour video interpreting the continued changes in the land as exemplified by the Moon Lot.
Requirements: participation in the research, writing, taping, and editing the project.
Enrollment limited to 15.
Cost to student: none.
Meeting time: mornings.

ART

BIOL 017 Outbreak: Viruses and Culture

The popular press would have us believe that the AIDS pandemic is a unique example of a viral pathogen causing cultural, political, and behavioral changes in society. In fact, infectious diseases and viral epidemics have impacted society throughout recorded history. This course will examine the intersection of infectious disease and society. The basic biology of viruses will be covered in context of examining the impact of viruses on human history and politics. The current interest in emerging viruses will also be examined with a focus on the social, economic, ecological, and cultural factors which induce episodes of novels to see how the representation of infectious diseases has evolved. How viruses have been portrayed by the entertainment industry, in both the print and film media, will be considered for their accuracy and intent.
Evaluation will be based on class participation, two short papers (2-3 pages) relating to assigned readings and films, and a presentation.
Enrollment limited to 30.
Meeting time: mornings.

Roseman

BIOL 031 Senior Thesis

To be taken by students registered for Biology 493, 494.

CHEMISTRY

CHEM 010 Structure Determination with Advanced Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Techniques

This course will introduce intermediate-level students of chemistry to advanced techniques in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectrometer operation that are employed in modern molecular structure analysis. Topics covered in the course will include basic spectrometer architecture, the fundamentals of NMR theory, spin-spin coupling interactions, simple decoupling experiments, simple multinuclear applications, and multipulse sequence experiments. Special emphasis will be placed on powerful "one-dimensional" and "two-dimensional" analysis techniques, including (1D): Distortionless Enhancement by Polarization Transfer (DEPT) and Nuclear Overhauser (NOE) difference spectra and (2D): H,H Correlation Spectroscopy ("H,H, COSY") and H,C COSY and C,C COSY ("2D INADEQUATE"). Class members will be trained in the operation of the Chemistry Department's new NMR console and data station and problem sets and the final class project will be carried out on this instrumentation. A command of introductory organic chemistry will be required.
The course will consist of three lectures and completion of one "spectrometer-based problem set" per week. Students will be expected to plan for and schedule spectrometer use in view of other Chemistry Department NMR spectrometer needs and regular due dates for problem sets. Student evaluation will be based upon attendance and participation in class, problem sets, and one ten page paper detailing a structural analysis using advanced NMR techniques.
Prerequisite: Chemistry 201-202. Enrollment limited to 8.
Cost to student: textbook and a packet of photocopied materials.
Meeting time: mornings.

RICHARDSON

CHEM 011 Science for Kids (Same as Environmental Studies 011 and Special 011)

(See under Special for full description.)

CHEM 012 Applying the Scientific Method to Archaeology and Paleoanthropology

Archaeological studies, which consider the human impact on the environment, can include materials as recent as nineteenth-century glass, or as old as stone tools from hundreds of thousands of years ago. And paleoanthropology, the study of early human remains, covers materials that are millions of years old. Natural science can answer a wide variety of questions for researchers in the field, not just how old an object is, but also where, how, and sometimes why an object was made. These answers in turn tell us about patterns of human development and settlement, and also help us distinguish forgeries from genuine artifacts.
The course will consist of approximately two weeks of class meetings and readings, after which students will select a project either in the lab or based on the readings. At the end of Winter Study, students will present their results to the class and submit a 5-7 page written report.
Evaluation will be based on class participation, completion of the project, and submission of a satisfactory report.
Prerequisite: a high school chemistry course; college-level chemistry is not required.
Enrollment limited to 12.
Cost to student: approximately $5 for reading packet.
Meeting time: mornings.

ANNE SKINNER (Instructor)
THOMAN (Sponsor)

Anne Skinner is a Senior Lecturer in Chemistry at Williams.

CHEM 013 Genetics and Disease: the Biology, Psychology, and Ethics of Genetic Testing (Same as Psychology 013 and Special 013)

How much of a role do your genes play in disease? What is genetic testing? What are the social and public policy issues surrounding genetic testing? This course will provide current information on how disease-related genes are identified, the availability and reliability of genetic tests, and the actual testing methods in current use. We will consider the contribution of genetic predisposition toward illness compared with other known risk factors, including behavior, personality, and stress. We will also discuss the myriad ethical, moral and economic issues that surround genetic testing and counseling. With the completion of the Human Genome Project in 2005, decisions regarding who will be tested and who will have access to this information will be addressed by both judicial and legislative bodies. Our goal for this course is to supply you with sufficient scientific information and theoretical perspective that you will be able to make significant contributions to the coming public discussion of these complex issues.
The class will meet three times per week for two hours. Approximately 50% of class time will be spent in group discussion of selected readings. Students will prepare three written evaluations of case studies, and will critique each others' writing in class. The final meeting will be devoted to an in-class debate.
Evaluation will be based on participation in class discussions and debate, and by the written assignments.
No prerequisites. Enrollment limited to 24.
Cost to student: none.
Meeting time: mornings.

FRIEDMAN and WEISS

CHEM 014 EMT Training Course

A course designed to prepare students for the Massachusetts EMT exam and to provide training to become MA-certified Emergency Medical Technicians. This is a time-intensive course involving 100 hours of class plus 10 hours of emergency room and ambulance work. Students will learn, among other skills, basic life support techniques, patient assessment techniques, safe transportation and mobilization skills, as well as the treatment of various medical emergencies, including shock, bleeding, soft-tissue injuries, and child birth.
Students will most likely take the EMT exam in February, following completion of the course. In addition, the class may meet a few times at the end of the fall semester in order to reduce the
number of class hours during Winter Study Period.
Enrollment limited to 24 students.
Cost to student: $200/student plus approximately $70 for textbook, stethoscope, and BP cuff.
Meeting time: mornings and afternoons.

KEVIN GARVEY (Instructor)
RICHARDSON (Sponsor)

Kevin Garvey is a Massachusetts state and nationally approved EMT-I (Intermediate) and an EMT-IC (Instructor-coordinator). He has been involved with Emergency Medical Service for 15-20 years. Mr. Garvey currently works as an EMT-I at Village Ambulance, Williamstown, and is also an EMT training instructor at Greenfield Community College.

CHEM 018 How to Brew Beer (Same as Special 018)

An introduction to the basics of brewing beer, this course is designed to increase your appreciation of the art of brewing. Equipment, ingredients, and methodology will be discussed in detail and used in practice. Students will learn clean brewing techniques and brew one small batch of beer. Other topics covered in the course will include the history, chemistry, and politics of brewing beer. In addition to brewing, we will spend time learning to evaluate critically some of the major varieties of beer.
We will hold three 2- to 3-hour sessions per week, depending on the activities of the day. Students are expected to attend all sessions and participate in the class field trips. Students are expected to keep and hand in for evaluation, a notebook recording their experiments in brewing, tasting, and information from field trips. In addition, participants are required to research and produce an 8- to 10-page paper on some topic related to the course with the topic approved by the instructor. Students will present their findings to the rest of the class in short presentations at the end of the course. As a creative task, each student shall design and present to the class their very own beer label.
No prerequisites. Enrollment limited to 12 students who are at least 21 years in age.
Cost to student: $30 covering xeroxing, notebook, field trip, consumables and equipment.
Required text: The New Complete Joy of Home Brewing, Charlie Papazian.
Meeting time: afternoons.

MARK NUTCHER and DAVID BACKUS (Instructors)
THOMAN (Sponsor)

Mark Nutcher has a B.S. from the University of Oregon and an M.A. from the University of Colorado. David Backus has a B.A. from Haverford College and expects his Ph.D. in Summer 1997 from the University of Washington, Seattle.

CHEM 022 Introduction to Scientific Research

An experimental project will be carried out under the supervision of a member of the Department in fields such as biochemistry, inorganic chemistry, organic chemistry, or physical chemistry.
A 10-page written report is required. Nonscience majors are invited to participate.
Prerequisite: variable, depending on the project (at least Chemistry 101) and permission of the Department. Enrollment limited to 12.
Cost to student: none.
Meeting time: mornings.

LOVETT

CHEM 031 Senior Research and Thesis

To be taken by students registered for Chemistry 493, 494.

CLASSICS

CLAS 010 Ovid's Metamorphoses

One of the most delightful and influential of all the authors of Classical Antiquity was Ovid. His vast compendium of classical mythology, the Metamorphoses, contains the versions of Greek and Roman myths that are the most familiar to us. And when we look at a painting or sculpture of a mythological scene a primary source is almost invariably Ovid. Shakespeare knew his Ovid well, and until the Romantic Era Ovid was regarded among the most important classical authors. The Metamorphoses was read for the sheer joy of its pagan wit and narrative skill, as an allegory of Christian virtues, and even as foreshadowing the New Testament.
Despite all the delight Ovid has provoked, the Metamorphoses remains an enigma in its design, narrative technique, and intent. Two thousand lines longer than the Aeneid, many critics have denied that it is an epic, while the rest cannot agree about its subject and intent. Ovid is recognized as a master storyteller, but there is little consensus about what is at the heart of his exuberant word play. And the significance of his central theme-the metamorphosis of a figure from one form into another-is still widely debated.
In this course we will read all of the Metamorphoses. After an introductory lecture we will move as the Muses beckon to discussion of certain stories as we seek to understand aspects of Ovid's narrative technique, the `purpose' of his work, and its lasting influence. A paper of moderate length and open discussion of the topics at hand will be required.
No prerequisites save an ability to read, think, and enjoy an intensely varied narrative. Enrollment limited to 30.
Cost to student: approximately $15 for the text.
Meeting time: mornings.

FUQUA

CLAS 013 Biblical Hebrew in a Month (Same as Religion 013)

This course will enable students to read the Bible in the original Hebrew in a fast, fun, and focused way. Topics include the difference between BeGeD-KeFeT, BuMaF, K'MiNPaTS, and the Throaty Five. Meet sentences without verbs, the extra pronoun, and word pairs. Discover a word's three letter root and explore the mysteries of the Shwa and Dagesh. Learn the seven `buildings' of the Hebrew verb and find the missing letters. In addition to this intensive study of Hebrew vocabulary and grammar, attention will also be given to the polyvalence of biblical discourse. The paratactic and terse character of the TaNaKH produce narratives tantalizingly `fraught with background' that virtually cry out to the reader `interpret me'. Thus by the end of the course students will have read the Book of Ruth with an understanding of both biblical language and biblical style.
Students will be evaluated on the basis of regular attendance, preparation, and class participation. In addition, students will be required to prepare a translation and grammatical commentary of 10-15 verses selected from the Book of Genesis as a final project. In order to facilitate the learning of Hebrew in a month, the course includes frequent quizzes and homework assignments. The course will meet three days a week for three hours a day covering three chapters per session. Students are expected to spend at least four hours preparing for each class. Because of the intensive nature of this course regular attendance and preparation are essential.
No prerequisites or previous experience in Hebrew required. Enrollment limited to 20.
Cost to student: $35.00 covering textbook and copies.
Meeting time: mornings.

KRAUS

CLAS 031 Senior Thesis

May be taken by students registered for Classics 493, 494.

COMPUTER SCIENCE

CSCI 010 Introduction to Computer Music and Sound Generation

This course is an introduction to the fundamentals of digital sound generation and manipulation, specifically techniques used in music. The lectures will provide an overview of the physics and psychophysics of sound, its digital representation, and mathematical manipulation. Following this, we will examine various techniques for processing and synthesizing sound, and see how these techniques have actually been implemented in "state of the art" synthesizers over the past 20 years.
During lab sessions, students will be able to experiment with these techniques to process and synthesize sounds and design "instruments." Additional topics covered will include non-real time synthesis techniques and algorithmic composition.
There will be a term project, though the subject and emphasis of the project will be up to the individual student. Projects may range, for example, from designing and implementing new synthesis techniques to writing and producing a fully computer-generated musical composition.
Prerequisites: a background in music or programming, and at least a user's familiarity with computers. Mathematics at least through pre-calculus is recommended. Enrollment limited to 20.
Cost to student: texts.
Meeting time: afternoons.

Sachs

CSCI 012 How to Solve it: The Mathematics of Puzzles and Games (Same as Mathematics 012)

(See under Mathematics for full description.)

CSCI 020 Computer Animation 1998

In this course, students will learn the fundamental issues facing animators in the fast lane of today's high-end special effects field through hands-on experience under the direction of some of the most talented animators in the business, the Kleiser-Walczak Construction Co., a computer graphics firm specializing in high-end database construction and human figure animation. They developed and own a system for the creation of computer generated actors called "Synthespians" which has been demonstrated in experimental films "Nestor Sextone for President" (1988) and "Don't Touch Me" (1990). They have also worked for PBS and CBS and their feature film work includes "Honey I Blew Up the Kids," "The Pickle," "Stargate," "Clear and Present Danger" and "Judge Dredd." They have also worked on special effects attractions for the Luxor Hotel and for Disney Theme Parks.
The course will consist of lectures in which the field of computer animation will be explored from an historical context, using videotape examples, as well as studio sessions, during which students will learn to use high-end workstations to create 3-D animated sequences of their own design. In addition, students may have an opportunity to participate in the production of actual projects on an intern level.
Prerequisites: a strong interest in graphics and animation. Preference to students with background in Computer Science or Studio Art. Enrollment limited to 12.
Cost to student: approximately $50 for books and materials.
Meeting time: morning meetings, with lab work at various times.

Jeff Kleiser (Instructor)
Bruce (Sponsor)

Jeff Kleiser is co-founder of Kleiser-Walczak Construction Co., a computer graphics firm specializing in high-end database construction and human figure animation. His work has appeared in many feature films and in numerous broadcast and commercial projects. Recent examples include work on the films Judge Dredd and Stargate, animated sequences in the PBS series The Astronomers and special effects attractions for the Luxor Hotel in Las Vegas.

CSCI 030 Senior Project

To be taken by candidates for honors in Computer Science via a route other than the thesis route.

CSCI 031 Senior Honor Thesis

To be taken by students registered for Computer Science 493-494.

CONTRACT MAJOR

CMAJ 031 Senior Thesis

To be taken by students registered for Contract Major 493, 494.

ECONOMICS

ECON 010 Agriculture and Sustainable Development

This is a graduate WSP offered at the Center for Development Economics. Agriculture policy makers in many developing countries face numerous dilemmas as they seek to meet the goals of producing food, earning hard currency through exports, generating income for the rural poor, and protecting land, water, forest, and wildlife resources. This class will examine the ways in which the goals of agricultural policy can coincide and conflict. We will pay special attention to the relationship between agricultural production and environmental protection. When and why does agricultural production lead to land clearing, diversion of water resources, and overuse of chemicals? When does agricultural development lead to improved use of resources? What role can and should policy makers play in influencing the course of agricultural development? Do markets lead to the most efficient and most desirable outcomes?
We will address these questions through readings, videos, and discussions, as well as through some simulation-type exercises, in which students get hands-on practice with policy making. We may also make one or more brief field trips to meet local farmers and agricultural leaders to ask how issues of sustainability and agricultural production are played out in Berkshire County.
The class will meet daily.
Evaluation will be based on two to three short papers, other written assignments, and class participation.
Enrollment limited to 30.
Cost to student: approximately $100 for textbook and photocopies.
Meeting time: afternoons.

GOLLIN

ECON 012 From Farm to Table: The Economics of Food

This course explores how changing economic patterns at the farm, distribution, retail, and consumer level affect food consumption patterns in the U.S. We will explore these economic relationships as we see how food moves from the farm to our tables. Initially, we will meet with local farmers to discuss the economic forces that are shaping their farming decisions. In many cases, the distinctions between production and processing are blurred, as more farmers move into contract farming, especially in the mid-west and south, and as many small farmers seek to create their own market niches and begin to market and sell their own specialty products. The food distribution system involves both local retailers, such as co-ops and large vertically integrated chains. We will meet with people involved with the distribution and retailing of food. Finally, we will look at how changing social and economic factors affect the choices that consumers make about food.
This course will meet three times per week and will involve several field trips to local farms and businesses.
Students will be evaluated on the basis of three short (approximately 5 page) papers and participation in class discussion.
Enrollment limited to 30.
Cost to student: approximately $75 for text and reading packets and additional costs for field trips.
Meeting time: afternoons.

DOSS

ECON 013 American Business Cycles, 1929-1997

This Winter Study course is intended to provide an opportunity for students to investigate important macroeconomic episodes in the United States from the Great Depression to the present. Such episodes are frequently referred to in both introductory and intermediate macroeconomics courses, but such courses never afford the time to study them in detail. The particular episodes to be addressed are the Great Depression itself, the Kennedy-Johnson boom, the supply shocks of the seventies, the Reagonomics. Time permitting, the performance of the economy during the Bush-Clinton administrations will be evaluated against this background. The emphasis will be to try to understand the forces that triggered major swings in U.S. macroeconomic performance during this period, both in the direction of upswings as well as downswings, by relying on the direct examination of data, the application of intermediate-level macroeconomic models, and critical evaluation of alternative interpretations offered by informed observers.
The class will be conducted as a seminar, and will meet in two-hour session three times per week.
Students will be evaluated on the basis of attendance, class participation, and a 15- to 20-page paper which proposes a particular interpretation of an important macroeconomic episode.
Prerequisites: Economics 101. Enrollment limited to 15.
Meeting time: mornings.

MONTIEL

ECON 014 Accounting

The project will examine the theoretical and practical aspects of financial accounting. Although the beginning of the course will explore the mechanics of the information gathering and dissemination process, the course will be oriented mainly towards users, rather than preparers, of accounting information. The project will include discussion of the principles involved in accounting for current assets, plant assets, leases, intangible assets, current and long-term debt, stockholders' equity, the income statement and the statement of cash flows. Students will be expected to interpret and analyze actual financial statements. The nature of, and career opportunities in, the field of accounting will also be discussed.
The project is a "mini course." It will present a substantial body of material and will require a considerable commitment of time by the student, including regular attendance and participation in discussion and homework cases and problems.
Enrollment limited to 30.
Cost to student: none.
Meeting time: mornings.

LEO McMENIMEN (Instructor)
WINSTON (Sponsor)

Leo McMenimen is returning to Williams this January from the School of Business, Montclair State College.

ECON 015 Stock Market

Elementary description and analysis of the stock market. Emphasis will be on the roles of the market in our economy, including evaluation of business firms and the success of particular capital investments, allocating savings to different types of investment, and providing liquid and marketable financial investments for individual savers.
The course will focus on the description of mechanics of trading on various exchanges and other markets, stock market indexes of "averages" (Dow-Jones, S&P, 500, etc.), how to read the financial news, historical rates of return on stocks and portfolios, role of mutual funds, beta coefficients, and "random walk" theory. The course will also involve a brief introduction to financial reports of firms and analysis of financial ratios.
Each student will participate in discussions, do some homework assignments, follow a hypothetical portfolio during January, and write a 10-page report analyzing the wisdom or folly of having chosen the portfolio.
Not intended for students who already know much about the stock market; students who have had Economics 317 not admitted. The course will involve a two-day field trip to New York City.
Prerequisite: Economics 101. Enrollment limited to 30.
Cost to student: $30 for text plus $50 for bus transportation to New York City, obligatory and paid at time of registration. Meals and lodging in New York City are not included in this price and are the responsibility of the student.
Meeting time: afternoons.

LEO MCMENIMEN (Instructor)
WINSTON (Sponsor)

Leo McMenimen is returning to Williams this January from the School of Business, Montclair State College.

ECON 018 Maps (Same as Environmental Studies 018)

A study of maps as ways to represent ideas and data. Principles of "thematic cartography," including role of projections, scale, symbols, color, and shading. Examples of maps from a wide variety of fields (journalism, historical narrative, physical sciences, economics, political science, advertising, propaganda) and subjects (e.g., politics, profitable business location, efficient public facility location, poverty, military campaigns and battles, environmental conditions, lass of forest cover, flood risk, ethnic populations, and migration). Introduction to aerial photographs and satellite images. The instructors' examples will be primarily from the U.S., Canada, and Latin America, but students may work independently on other regions. Note: This is not primarily a course in "geographical information systems" (GIS), although there will be an introduction to that subject.
Requirements: We will encourage students to work independently, but at a minimum each student must: a) collect and critique examples of maps; b) participate actively in discussion three meeting each week; c) design, produce, and exhibit publicly an original series of maps with one of the computer mapping programs that will be available.
No prerequisites. Enrollment limited to 20.
Cost to student: approximately $40 for texts and reading packet.
Meeting time: mornings.

R. BOLTON and CONNING

ECON 025 Spotted Owls and Pink Salmon

This Travel WSP will explore the complex and divisive issues confronting the Pacific Northwest, a region highly depended on resource extraction industries that have become threatened by excessive harvesting, environmental degradation, technological change, government policy, and economic growth. A central goal of the course is to see, first-hand, the nature of the problems, to talk with those who are affected and to gain an appreciation for the many points of view which have made the issues so difficult to reconcile. The course will focus on understanding the causes of these resource problems and looking at a range of policies and other potential solutions. Students will have opportunities to talk with industry representatives, community leaders, native Americans, staff from State and Federal Government, environmental groups, and academics.
Travel will begin in Seattle and will include the Olympic Peninsula, Washington coast, the Columbia River basin, Portland, and parts of the mountain interior of Washington State. A significant part of the course will focus on studying the Willapa Bay region on the southern Washington coast in cooperation with EcoTrust (headed by Spencer Beebe '68) and the Willapa Alliance, an effort to create a grass roots organization to encourage sustainable economic development in this resource-dependent region. In addition to localized issues such as those in Willapa Bay, wider regional issues will be explored including the conflicts between salmon, hydropower dams, agriculture, and forestry, development in the Cascade and Olympic mountains regions, and sustainable development around Puget Sound.
Each student will be required to write a 10-page paper.
No prerequisites, although students having taken Economics 101 and Environmental Studies 101 will be given priority. Enrollment limited to 10.
Cost to student: approximately $750, excluding transportation to and from Seattle.

W. JAEGER

ECON 026 South Africa's Transition: The Challenge of Redistribution and Growth

This 22-day travel course will investigate the complex problem of South Africa's economic transformation, examining the role of public policy in mobilizing social investment that fuels revitalized growth while bolstering higher wages and increased employment. Since South Africa's first democratic elections three years ago, the country has implemented a remarkable political transformation. Socio-economic progress, however, has been much more difficult. This project will explore the challenges posed by the objectives of redistribution and economic growth, focusing on the role of government in providing social investment like housing, health care, education, and job creation.
South Africa is a country of contrasts: international polls rank Cape Town as one of the world's three most pleasant cities, yet minutes from the central business district smolder huge pockets of abject urban poverty. This course will investigate how such a skewed distribution of resources has been perpetuated, and why redressing the problem has been so difficult. The first ten days of the course will focus on understanding the problem-visiting poor townships created as economically nonviable entities, investigating inequities in the provision of education and health care, and comprehending the predicament of the rural poor. The paucity of public resources for the majority stands in stark contrast to the abundance provided by apartheid-era policies to the privileged minority: a health care system that achieved the world's first successful heart transplant, public schools comparable to the world's best private educational institutions, and first-rate urban amenities. The second half of the course will analyze why one of the world's most unequal societies is so resistant to change, and what role public policy can serve in fostering redistribution and growth. Meetings -with policy-makers and community activists, with teachers and labor leaders, with economic researchers and social workers, with public health advocates and bankers-will provide insight into the historical and structural causes of the extreme inequality that characterizes South Africa's society, and the options available for redressing past imbalances and inequities while promoting economic growth and job creation. The itinerary will focus on Cape Town and rural areas within the Western Cape province.
The theme of social investment unifies the course: how apartheid created one of the world's most skewed distributions of human capital, whose inertial force resists substantive change, and the critical role that public investment in social infrastructure must serve in transforming the economy. First-hand experience combined with educational presentations and discussions will illuminate the challenges, opportunities, and policy options facing South Africa as the country rebuilds political, social, and economic institutions
No prerequisite. Enrollment limited to 12-14. Interested students must consult the instructor before registration (email: michael.samosn@williams.edu).
Cost to student: $2,840 (Includes round-trip airfare from New York City to Cape Town, hotel accommodations, all meals, local transportation, and miscellaneous expenses).

SAMSON

ECON 030 Honors Project

The "Specialization Route" to the degree with Honors in Economics requires that each candidate take an Honors Winter Study Project in January of the senior year. Students who wish to begin their honors work in January should submit a detailed proposal. Decisions on admission to the Honors WSP will be made in the fall. Information on the procedures will be mailed to senior majors in economics early in the fall semester.
Seniors who wish to apply for admission to the Honors WSP and thereby to the Honors Program should register for this WSP as their first choice.
Some seniors will have begun honors work in the fall and wish to complete it in the WSP. They will be admitted to the WSP if they have made satisfactory progress. They should register for this WSP as their first choice.

BRAINERD

ECON 031 Honors Thesis

To be taken by students participating in year-long thesis research (ECON 493-W031-494).

ENGLISH

ENGL 010 Films of Lubitsch and Sturges

We will study the work of two of Hollywood's most original comic minds and distinguished directors: Ernst Lubitsch and Preston Sturges. Lubitsch, arguably the most prestigious Hollywood director of the 1930s, was unmatched for the elegance and cleverness of his visual style and for the deft and urbane acting he elicited. In such charming and worldly comic masterpieces as Trouble in Paradise, The Shop Around the Corner, and Ninotchka, he analyzed American and European attitudes toward sex and money with a distinctive blend of cheerfully cynical satire and indulgent wit. His screwball comedy about the Nazi occupation of Poland, To Be or Not to Be, is one of the most remarkable political films ever made. Sturges enjoyed a meteoric rise in the early 1940s as a director of wild and off-beat comedies. Films such as The Great McGinty, The Lady Eve, The Palm Beach Story, and The Miracle of Morgan's Creek are conceived as brilliant satires of American politics, sex, motherhood, class, money, and advertizing, but are almost unhinged by the madcap energies of Sturges' penchant for farce and for weird disruptions of convention.
Requirements: Students will be asked to write short journal entries on each of the approximately ten films studied, about 15 pages of writing in all. Three two-hour meetings per week.
No prerequisites. Enrollment limited to 18; preference to students who have taken English 204 and to English majors, but others are welcome also.
Cost to student: approximately $20 for books and an offset packet.
Meeting time: mornings.

Tifft

ENGL 011 Dream Work

This course will explore the relation between dream and representation-dreaming as a mode of representation, but also representations of dreams in a variety of cultural avatars-literature, film, advertizing. The first portion of the course will focus on The Interpretation of Dreams, Freud's seminal work on the unconscious and a fascinating narrative in its own right. We will then consider a variety of literary and film works that focus on dream life, from The Book of the Duchess to Through the Looking Glass, from Cocteau's "Beauty and the Beast" to "Videodrome." We will end with reflections on the relation between dreams and commodity culture-how does dream representation do its work in that sphere? how are we brought to dream of buying dreams, including the dream that we might, for once, "just do it"?
Requirements: ten pages of writing. Three two-hour meetings per week.
Prerequisites: English 101. Enrollment limited to 20, with students selected from a mix of levels and disciplines.
Cost to student: approximately $20 for readings.
Meeting time: mornings.

Pye

ENGL 012 Constructing Elizabeth I

Renowned as the Virgin Queen and one of England's greatest monarchs, Elizabeth I spent the first half of her reign wooing her subjects, negotiating marriages with the various crowded heads of Europe, and defending her right to rule the country herself, whether or not she married. This course will compare the ways in which Elizabeth I constructed herself (poetry, public speeches, proclamations, political negotiations, pageantry, print, portraiture, and gossip) with the ways in which her speech and writing have been represented by biographers and historians.
Requirements: Students are required to attend class regularly (three two-hour meetings per week), take an active part in class discussions, and complete assigned readings, while working on an individual or group project. The projects, based on Elizabeth's own writings and writings about her, will enable students to pursue their own creative or scholarly interests in literature, history, Women's Studies, art, education, politics, or technology. Possible projects include: a chapter in a history or biography of Elizabeth; a packet of materials or a mini-course for the Williamstown elementary school; a documentary, epic poem, drama, pageant, musical comedy, rock opera, or stand-up comic or court jester's routine about one or more moments in Elizabeth's reign; a slide show using images of the queen; original drawings, portraits, cartoons, comic books, or computer graphics drawn from life masks used by contemporary portrait painters; a CD-ROM or web site; an introduction and annotated bibliography for an edition of Elizabeth's writings; a feminist critique of ways in which the queen has been portrayed by biographers, historians, literary critics, or Elizabethan writers such as Shakespeare or Spenser.
No prerequisites. Enrollment limited to 20; preference given to students, or groups of students, with a clearly defined project.
Cost to student: will vary depending on the type of project pursued.
Meeting time: mornings.

I. Bell

ENGL 013 A Century of Shakespeare on Screen (Same as Spanish 013)

(See under Romance Languages for full description.)

ENGL 014 Feminist Science Fiction

This course will focus on the development of feminist and lesbian science fiction, fantasy and utopian fiction, beginning with Charlotte Perkins Gilman's Herland (1915), a utopian novel about an all-female world, and including the science fiction of Ursula LeGuin, Margaret Atwood, Joanna Russ, and Sheri Tepper, among others. We will consider the function and value of "feminist" writing in what is often seen as an "escapist" genre, and explore the range of attitudes these novels embody toward male and female culture and identity, sexuality, the uses and dangers of technology, and the role of violence in human culture. The first part of the course will focus on the development of feminist science fiction as a distinct genre, and the second part will focus on the range of, and fault lines among, writers currently working within it. Students will have an opportunity to pursue particular authors or types of fiction that interest them, and the course will also offer some opportunity to meet with contemporary writers in the field.
Requirements: a reading journal or a ten-page essay. Three two-hour meetings per week.
No prerequisites. Enrollment limited to 20, with preference to seniors first, then to English majors.
Cost to student: approximately $50 for books.
Meeting time: afternoons.

Case

ENGL 015 Ghost Stories

What are the particular pleasures of a good ghost story? "It should give you the creeps," Roald Dahl writes, "and disturb your thoughts." Beyond the requisite chill and shudder, how might our thoughts be disturbed? And to what end? In this course we will read a number of supernatural tales, including classics of the genre by Algernon Blackwood, Ambrose Bierce, M. R. James, and Edgar Allan Poe, and modern variations by, among others, Jorge Luis Borges, Franz Kafka, Vladimir Nabokov, Elizabeth Bowen, and John Cheever. We will also discuss two short novels-The Turn of the Screw by Henry James, and The Haunting of Hill House by Shirley Jackson-and two films adapted from these books (The Innocents and The Haunting).
Requirements: attendance at all class meetings, one in-class presentation, and a 10- to 15-page paper. Three two-hour meetings per week.
Prerequisites: English 101. Enrollment limited to 20.
Cost to student: books only.
Meeting time: mornings.

Raab

ENGL 016 Fantasy Novels of C.S. Lewis and Charles Williams (Same as Mathematics 016)

(See under Mathematics for full description.)

ENGL 017 Henry James

Henry James writes about what it meant for American and European societies to be mutually exposed to and by one another around the turn of this century. In so doing he raises questions about what it means to be civilized, to be smart, and to be rich. We will consider how the drama of consciousness is played out in his characters' struggles with love and conscience, and in his own preoccupation with capturing stylistically the narrative logic of the passions. We will read three novellas-"The Beast in the Jungle," "The Pupil," and "The Aspern Papers"-as well as the novels The Ambassadors and The Golden Bowl.
Requirements: three short papers or one 10-page paper. Three two-hour meetings per week.
Prerequisites: English 101. Enrollment limited to 18, with preference to English majors.
Cost to student: approximately $50 for books.
Meeting time: afternoons.

Sokolsky

ENGL 018 Modern Irish Drama

The first portion of this course will focus on the Irish "Revival" period (1890s to 1920s), including drama by Yeats, Shaw, Synge, and Lady Gregory, with supporting representative readings in short fiction and non-fiction prose of the period. Our readings will address, in particular, the following key issues: the recuperation and promotion of an independent Irish literary tradition during the Revival, and the uneasy relationship of this new literary tradition to the English literary mainstream; the assigned writers' negotiations with the cultural politics of their time, and in particular with the contested idea of "Irishness" itself; and the place of gender in the construction of national and literary identity. The remainder of the course will focus on the impact of Irish independence and the shadow cast by the Revival writers on subsequent Irish dramatists, including O'Casey, Behan, and Friel. We will conclude with a screening and discussion of The Crying Game, and consider how the paradigms of political action, gender, and national identity established in the Irish tradition during the first half of this century continue to resonate powerfully in contemporary literary and cultural texts.
Requirements: 12-page final paper and a short oral presentation. Three two-hour meetings per week.
Prerequisites: English 101. Enrollment limited to 18, with preference to English majors.
Cost to student: approximately $60.
Meeting time: mornings.

James Pethica (Instructor)
Fix (Sponsor)

James Pethica teaches Modern British and Irish Literature at the University of Richmond. He is on leave in 1997-98, completing a book on Yeats and Lady Gregory.

ENGL 019 Toni Morrison

A close reading of Toni Morrison's six published novels: The Bluest Eye, Sula, Song of Solomon, Tar Baby, Beloved, and Jazz. Our aim will be to experience, as intensely as possible, the way Morrison sees things and says things-the angle of her vision and the rhythm of her language, and the way both of those things have changed over time. In the process of developing that kind of complex familiarity with Morrison's work, we will find what a rich occasion for thought it is. By way of Morrison, we should be able to rediscover as questions such things as memory, race, nuclear families, and black women's talk.
Requirements: a 10-15 page paper. During the first half of Winter Study, the class will meet three times a week for two hours, and during the second half of Winter Study, the course will meet twice a week for three hours.
Prerequisites: English 101. Enrollment limited to 20, with preference to seniors and English majors.
Cost to student: approximately $70.
Meeting time: afternoons.

Geoff Sanborn (Instructor)
Fix (Sponsor)

Geoff Sanborn is Assistant Professor of English at Fairfield University, where he teaches courses in American literature and culture. He is the author of The Sign of the Cannibal: Melville and the Spectacle of Savagery, and is working on a collection of essays on race, trauma, and memory.

ENGL 020 Journalism

In this introduction to journalism, students will learn reporting, writing, and editing skills through written assignments and in-class exercises. We will examine how different styles of writing serve different needs, and the practical and legal limits within which journalists work. Assignments will include writing a news story, a feature article, a review, and an editorial. Students also will practice the essential art of rewriting.
Requirements: Each student will submit articles on deadline; read and discuss current newspapers and magazines; and attend all classes. Four two-hour meetings per week.
No prerequisites. Enrollment limited to 15, with preference to first-year students.
Cost to student: less than $20.
Meeting time: mornings.

Sally White (Instructor)
Fix (Sponsor)

Sally White worked at Time Inc. magazines in New York and Washington for thirteen years. She is now a freelance writer.

ENGL 023 Parody Workshop

In this course we will be reading and analyzing (or at least discussing superficially and vaguely) famous parodies of famous authors. But the bulk of our energy will be spent writing. For each class, students will prepare a short parody of an assigned writer, some of which we'll read aloud. Class time will be spent trying to figure our what works and what doesn't, what's funny and what's lame. In addition, students will have the entire Winter Study period to prepare a longer parody of a writer of their choice (due in the last class).
The list of writers we will be making fun of is changeable, as it depends partly on students' suggestions. Here are some possibilities: T. S. Eliot, Courtney Love, William Shakespeare, Malcolm X, Marcel Proust, Ernest Hemingway, Jacques Derrida, Mary Daly, Robert "Bob" Dylan, Camille Paglia, James Merrill, Gabriel Garcia Marquez, Jack Kerouac, Alan Ginsberg, W. B. Yeats, Gertrude Stein, Sigmund Freud, Bertolt Brecht, Tupac Shakur, Lao Tzu, Alfred Tennyson, Virginia Woolf, William Wordsworth, William Faulkner . . . (you get the idea).
Requirements: class participation, completion of assignments, and above all personal whim. Two three-hour meetings per week.
Prerequisites: English 101. Enrollment limited to 15. In selecting students, preference will be given to seniors, and attention will be paid to diversity and to the balance between men and women.
Cost to student: minimal (mostly for xeroxing).
Meeting time: afternoons.

Paul Park (Instructor)
Fix (Sponsor)

Paul Park is the author of five novels and a small but meager body of short fiction.

ENGL 024 Kipling and India: Encountering the Other

While Disney cannibalizes and vulgarizes Kipling's Jungle Books, N. C. Chaudhuri calls Kim "one of the greatest of English novels." Edward Said, writing on culture and imperialism, admits Kim to "the world's greatest literature." Salman Rushdie reads Kipling's Indian stories with the incompatible emotions of "anger and delight." Why, after a near century of invisibility on college syllabuses, is this Nobel Prize-winning and internationally popular author now being read, studied, and admired by exactly those whom we might expect to be too angered to be delighted? Shall we join them? We shall read as much as we can of Kipling's Indian fiction, and consider whether it is time to open the academic canon to what Said calls Kipling's "extraordinary genius."
Requirements: two journals and a final 8- to 10-page paper. Three two-and-a-half hour meetings per week.
Prerequisites: English 101 or permission of instructor. Enrollment limited to 20, with preference to seniors, and to actual or potential English majors.
Cost to student: approximately $45.
Meeting time: afternoons.

C. Park (Instructor)
Fix (Sponsor)

Clara Park is Senior Lecturer in English emerita at Williams.

ENGL 030 Honors Project: Specialization Route

Required during Winter Study of all seniors admitted to candidacy for honors via the specialization route.

ENGL 031 Honors Project: Thesis

Required during Winter Study of all seniors admitted to candidacy for honors via the thesis route.

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES

ENVI 010 Writing and Drawing-The Naturalist's Journal

This course will explore the tools for studying the natural world through various uses of writing, literature, and drawing. Students will spend time outdoors learning the ecosystem of the Williamstown area and time indoors doing observational drawing, reflective writing, and reading and discussion of nature literature. The month's work will be contained in a nature journal, to be displayed and discussed as part of a final project.
Designed for students with interests in environmental studies, natural history writing, and drawing.
No prerequisites. Enrollment limited to 12.
Cost to student: $50 for books and art supplies.
Meeting time: mornings.

CLARE WALKER LESLIE & CHRISTIAN MCEWEN (Instructors)
LEE (Sponsor)

Clare Walker Leslie has written five books on nature drawing. She illustrated Prof. William T. Fox's At the Sea's Edge. Christian McEwen is a writer and editor in Charlemont, Massachusetts.

ENVI 011 Science for Kids (Same as Chemistry 011 and Special 011)

(See under Special for full description.)

ENVI 012 Land Conservation: Tenets and Techniques

Land trusts are the fastest growing component of the environmental movement across the U.S. and, increasingly, a source of job opportunities. This course will examine why and how 20 percent of Massachusetts has been preserved as open space. Land is the base for all our other resources: rare species habitat; groundwater and river protection; wildlife; scenic views; and recreation. We'll look at the history of land protection, sources of funding, land protection tools such as bargain sales, conservation easements, bequests, and limited developments, together with the tax benefits associated with land donations and estate planning. Selection of critical parcels for acquisition, including wildlife habitat planning considerations, and the increasing need for proper stewardship of conservation areas, will be examined. The role of local, state, and federal agencies and non-profit organizations in land protection will be discussed. Current projects on Cape Cod and in the Berkshires will be used to illustrate concepts and patterns.
No prerequisites. Enrollment limited to 20.
Cost to student: $10.
Meeting time: mornings.

MARK H. ROBINSON '79 (Instructor)
LEE (Sponsor)

Mark Robinson is the executive director of the Compact of Cape Cod Conservation Trusts in Barnstable, Massachusetts.

ENVI 013 Technology Development and Environmental Concerns in Russia, Canada and the United States

This course in Technology Development is a survey course in problem solving applied to answer a basic question: What are the technological, environmental or social factors which govern the success or failure of large Northern Development projects? There are many answers to such questions-and we approach them from an economic, technological, environmental, political and social point to view in order to see what each discipline individually contributes to the answer. Only then can we combine these approaches to determine the optimum answer.
Much of the course is taken up with case studies of actual large and small development projects which already exist or are planned for northern communities. As such, we have access to considerable data on the development and decision making process, the nature of the technology used, as well as the social and environmental impacts. We will explore the Red Dog Zinc Mine, the accident at Exxon Valdez, the Windy Craggy Copper Mine in BC, and the Quebec HydroElectric Project in Canada and Alaska. Russian examples of technology include the successful Kubaka Gold Mine in Magadan, the pollution of Lake Baikal, the pollution of Russian rivers and the Chernobyl disaster. Six case studies of small scale local community development across Canada and Alaska may be useful to illustrate positive elements in economic development which may produce sustainable development.
Aside from the case studies, we will briefly consider the geographic characteristics of the North which pose particular problems for development. To understand these case studies we will use multidisciplinary approaches and analysis based upon the various disciplines listed above. Systems thinking and the modes of system failure must be understood for us to be fully aware of the nature of technology and its potential impact upon the physical or social environment. Extensive use will be made of slides, videos and maps.
Students will be required to write a short paper and one of ten or more pages on a topic of their own choosing related to Northern development issues. Grades will be based upon the papers and the vigor and enthusiasm of classroom discussion. Class will meet for two hours, three times each week.
Enrollment is limited to 20.
Cost to student: about $35 for Xeroxing of materials.
Meeting time: mornings.

DR. HENRY COLE (Instructor)
LEE (Sponsor)

Dr. Henry Cole '59 was the Science Advisor to Alaska Governor Steve Cowper from 1986 to 1991. He currently manages a mining waste water remediation project.

ENVI 014 Risky Business

Managing risks is an important, controversial paradigm in American institutions and culture. This course will introduce you to basic ideas in risk management and challenges you to respond by developing a critical, informed stance on how uncertain and incomplete knowledge should affect the choices made by individuals, the public, and large organizations.
The course will use risk analysis in environmental decisions (such as studies of exposure to toxins, which may produce cancer many years later) as an example of a wide class of choices (such investing in stocks, bioethical judgments, insurance, policies for the uncertain impact of global climate change, and foreign policy). The aim of the course is two-fold: 1) to provide ideas for each student to formulate her or his own judgments about risky decisions; and 2) to acquaint students with information-search methods to inform these judgments.
Both 1) and 2) are applicable in academic research tasks in college, and mastering these skills will prove useful in job settings such as management consulting and public policy.
Class evaluation will be based upon a critical annotated bibliography on risk, as applied to a subject to be chosen by each student.
Enrollment is limited to 20.
Cost to student: approximately $20 for reading packet.
Meeting time: mornings.

LEE and KOMOROWSKI

Kai Lee is professor of environmental studies; Walter Komorowski is director of library systems.

ENVI 015 Natural History of the Berkshires (Same as Biology 015)

(See under Biology for full description.)

ENVI 016 Moon Farm Video (Same as Biology 016)

(See under Biology for full description.)

ENVI 017 Exploration, Science, and the Environment (Same as History of Science 017)

(See under History of Science for full description.)

ENVI 018 Maps (Same as Economics 018)

(See under Economics for full description.)

ENVI 031 Senior Research and Thesis

To be taken by students registered for Environmental Studies 493-494.

GEOSCIENCES

GEOS 010 Geology of the National Parks

A vicarious trip through selected national parks of the U.S. and Canada with emphasis on the geological basis for their unique scenery. Areas to be studied will be chosen in order to illustrate a wide variety of geologic processes and products. The class will meet most mornings during the first two weeks for lectures and discussions, supplemented with lab work devoted to the interpretation of topographic and geologic maps and to the study of rock samples. Readings will include a paperback text as well as short publications of the U.S. Geological Survey and various natural history associations. The second half of the project will involve independent study of topics chosen by the students in preparation for half-hour oral presentations during the last week. The oral reports will be comprehensive, well illustrated explanations of the geology of a particular national park or monument of the student's choice, using maps, slides, and reference materials available within the department and on the internet. A detailed outline and an accompanying bibliography will be submitted at the time of the oral presentation.
No prerequisites. Open only to students with no previous college-level study of geology. Preference will be given to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 15.
Cost to student: approximately $40 for the text.
Meeting time: mornings.

WOBUS

GEOS 012 Searching for Gold

The search for gold has obsessed humanity for millennia. It has driven people to great feats of exploration and has carried them to the most inhospitable corners of the Earth. It has caused wars, shaped societies, built nations, and destroyed civilizations. This course will examine the natural occurrence of gold, the means by which it has been found and mined since prehistoric times, and the history, literature, and folklore of gold rushes from ancient times to the present. Readings will be from a variety of historical, literary, and geological sources, ranging from texts for medieval miners and memoirs of Spanish conquistadors, through the literary accounts of Jack London and Mark Twain, to news accounts of the ongoing gold rush in the Amazon jungle and assessments of the environmental impact of modern mining operations.
Evaluation will be based on a research paper dealing with geological, historical, environmental, social, or economic aspects of gold exploration and mining. Enrollment limited to 16.
Cost to student: approximately $15 to $40 for reading materials.
Meeting time: mornings.

BRANDRISS

GEOS 014 Dinosaur Science (additional information about the course)

Science literacy in society is low and science is sometimes a feared topic in high school, but everybody likes dinosaurs. Kids positively love them. How can we use this fascination for the huge, bizarre, and long dead animals to teach K1-8 about science? Paleontology is a discipline that sits between the earth and life sciences with the possibility to embrace physics (bio-mechanics), math, chemistry, and astronomy. Therefore, it is easy to integrate dinosaurs in many agendas. In this course we will learn basics about dinosaurs. We will study science education standards and curricula for the different grade levels and discuss different ways to use dinosaur paleontology in teaching. The students will pair up and concentrate on one grade level. In cooperation with public school teachers, they will choose a science topic from the curriculum that can be carried out with the help of dinosaurs. We will use the first weeks to work out curricula that actively involves the children on different levels. The last two weeks will be devoted to use of this in practice.
The class will meet four times a week in 90 minute sessions. Each student will read scientific dinosaur papers about relevant topics and present ways to use this in their grade. We will all discuss this, find other ways to use the same material, and together work out a good agenda for each level. The students will also spend time in public school classes. Textbook used: Lucas, S.G., 1997: Dinosaurs-The Textbook. W.C. Brown, 290 p. Enrollment limited to 16.
Cost to student: $25 for selective readings.
Meeting time: mornings.

GUDVEIG BAARLI (Instructor)
M. JOHNSON (Sponsor)

Gudveig Baarli received her Ph.D. in Geology from the University of Oslo in 1988 and is a Research Associate in Geosciences at Williams.

GEOS 020 Computer Applications in the Sciences

An in-depth exploration of Macintosh-based applications designed to make scientists' lives easier and better (or sometimes harder and worse). Scientific activity commonly generates large amounts of data and/or mathematical models. There are now many applications available to manipulate, portray, and mathematically model data. It is becoming increasingly important to the success of a scientific project to effectively present the results in a visually understandable and aesthetically pleasing way.
We will learn how to use database, graphics, and mathematical modelling programs to create and analyze two- and three-dimensional images of natural phenomena. An important aspect of this project will be determining what constitutes an effective image.
We will meet as a group for three two-hour meetings each week. Students should anticipate spending additional time completing computer-based projects which will form the basis for evaluation. This project is primarily intended to help students considering a senior thesis in the sciences. Therefore, preference will be given to juniors and sophomores. Enrollment limited to 12.
Cost to student: none.
Meeting time: mornings.

KARABINOS

GEOS 025 Geology in the Virgin Islands

Participants in this course will spend the Winter Study period camping and conducting field work in the U.S. Virgin Islands, the geology of which represents an unusual mix of active tectonic processes and carbonate sedimentation. Subduction of the Caribbean plate beneath the North American plate produced a chain of volcanic islands, including the Virgin Islands. Although volcanism is ongoing elsewhere in the Antilles, the Virgin Islands volcanoes are now extinct. The islands were much modified by changing sea levels during the last 1.5 m.y. Coral reef systems that developed during periods of high sea level were exposed and eroded when sea level dropped. Sea level has risen steadily over the last 15,000 years, and much of the modern offshore topography is due to the development of a system of fringing reefs that has grown up on top of the older, eroded reef terraces.
This course will examine modern and ancient reef and carbonate sedimentation systems, both on land and in the ocean. We will also investigate the volcanic and deep-marine sediments that are now uplifted in the core of the island, and we will study the interactions between tectonics and sedimentation in this unique environment.
Evaluation will be based on participation in field investigations and on field notebooks.
Prerequisite: Geosciences 251T or consent of instructor. Enrollment limited to 12.
Cost to student: depends on airfare and food expenses, but expected to be in the range of $800-$1000. Camping costs will be subsidized; no textbook required.

COX

GEOS 031 Senior Thesis

To be taken by students registered for Geology 493-494.

GERMAN

GERM S.P. Sustaining Program for German 101-102

Something new and different for students enrolled in German 101-102. Practice in the use of German for everyday purposes; creation and performance of short dramatic sketches through group collaboration; games; songs; storytelling; reading. No homework.
Class meets four times a week for 50 minutes.
Requirements: active participation and regular attendance earn a "Pass" grade.
Prerequisite: German 101 or equivalent. Limited to German 101-102 students.
Cost to student: the price of one paperback text.

GERM 010 Introduction to Dutch (Same as Special 010)

This will be a crash course for those interested in acquiring a basic knowledge of that wonderfully guttural language spoken not only by over fifteen million Netherlanders, but also by six million Belgians, Afrikaners, Antilleans, and some elderly Indonesians.
For phonetics and grammatical skills we will work and drill from Shetter's grammar. The practical acquisitions of learning to speak and understand will be developed through readings and oral exercises taken from a wide variety of short texts.
We will meet on a daily basis for one hour and a half. Each day written exercises and quizzes will be given. There will be a final written exam on all the material covered.
No prerequisites. Enrollment limited to 15.
Cost to student: no more than $20 for book, dictionary, and photocopy packet.
Meeting time: mornings.

ADRIANA M. BROWN (Instructor)
GOLDSTEIN (Sponsor)

Adriana Brown '85 studied English and German translating at the University of Amsterdam. She has taught Dutch at Williams College during Winter Study Period since 1989.

GERM 025 German in Germany

Begin or continue study of the German language at the Goethe Institute in Prien, Germany. The Goethe Institute program attracts students from all over the world. A typical course meets for four weeks, 18 hours/week, generally providing the equivalent of one semester course at Williams. To earn a pass, the student must receive the Goethe Institute's Teilnahme-Bestätigung which denotes regular attendance at classes, completion of homework, and successful completion of a final test.
Students wishing to apply must fill out an application, obtainable in the office of the Center for Foreign Languages, Literatures, and Cultures in Weston, and return it to the Goethe Institute as soon as possible (admission is on a first-come, first-served basis).
Prerequisite: none, but any student interested in beginning German with this course and then entering German 102 at Williams should contact Professor Newman by December 1, at the latest. Enrollment limited to 15. Not open to first-year students.
Cost to student: from approximately $1300 to approximately $1800 for tuition and room and board, plus round trip travel costs. The Goethe Institute arranges for room and board at various levels upon students' request, but students must make their own travel arrangements. This course is not defined as a "trip" for financial aid purposes. The maximum reimbursement to financial aid students is $300.

NEWMAN

GERM 030 Honors Project

To be taken by honors candidates following other than the normal thesis route.

GERM 031 Senior Thesis

To be taken by students registered for German 493-494.

HISTORY

HIST 010 American Catholicism in the Novels of Andrew Greeley (Same as American Studies 010)

Andrew Greeley is a Roman Catholic priest, sociologist and best-selling author of fiction. His novels cover an equally wide spectrum of genres, such as fantasy, psychological suspense, and murder mysteries. The common thread in all of Greeley's writing is his concern with the central issues of today's crisis in Catholicism. In this course we will read selected novels and focus on the ways in which Greeley presents such interwoven themes as hierarchy versus spirit, the feminine divine versus patriarchal institution, laity versus clergy, human sexuality, clerical celibacy, the role of women in the church, miracle and everyday life, and religious zeal versus social toleration. While these issues are especially poignant for Catholics, Greeley strives to make them equally accessible to people of other religions. This course will follow his lead.
Requirements: class attendance and participation; a 10-page essay on course readings. Class will meet three times a week.
No prerequisites. Enrollment limited to 20.
Cost to student: $30 covering books and Xeroxes.
Meeting time: mornings.

BERETZ

HIST 011 Gaius Bolin and His Successors: Williams College and African Americans

Between 1865 and 1935 more than two dozen African Americans matriculated at Williams College. This Winter Study Project will survey the history of African Americans and American colleges both black and white, and explore the particular circumstances which blacks encountered at Williams. Students will write two short papers. The first assignment concerns blacks on some other campus in the late nineteenth or early twentieth century. In the second assignment students will choose a black Williams student from the same period and research his experiences at Williams and beyond based on resources in Williamsiana.
Each paper will be 5- to 7-pages long. Class will meet three times a week.
No prerequisites. Enrollment limited to 20.
Cost to student: $30 covering books and Xeroxes.
Meeting time: afternoons.

DICKERSON

HIST 012 Robert Musil and the Crisis of European Culture, 1890-1930

This course will be devoted to reading closely the major works of the Austrian novelist and essayist, Robert Musil (1880-1942), one of the greatest critical and imaginative thinkers of the twentieth century. In essays, short stories, and novels, Musil portrayed and analyzed the crisis of bourgeois culture after the turn of the century that would give rise to Nazism and to the collapse of liberal, civil society in Central Europe. Although we will read Young Torless and a number of his short stories and essays, the bulk of the course will be devoted to Musil's masterpiece, The Man Without Qualities, a novel that presents the disordered world of pre-war Vienna as a model for the cultural and moral crisis in Europe during the first three decades of the twentieth century. Requirements a 10-page paper and regular and thoughtful participation in class discussion.
No prerequisites. Enrollment limited to 20.
Cost to student: $30 covering books and Xeroxes.
Meeting time: mornings.

KOHUT

HIST 013 Material Culture of Late Imperial China

This Winter Study project will look at the objects that constituted the physical reality of Chinese men and women around the turn of the twentieth century. We will visit four museums (Williams, Peabody-Salem, Peabody-Harvard, and one other to be arranged) where we will interact with actual historical objects under the guidance of museum professionals. Our goal will be to develop an understanding of how to use artifacts (along with relevant documentary data) to explore cultural questions.
The group will meet twice a week: once for field trip and once for discussion.
Evaluation will be based on four 5- to 7-page essays.
No prerequisites. Enrollment limited to 20.
Cost to student: $50 covering museum entry fees and Xeroxes.
Meeting time: mornings.

REEVES

HIST 014 Fly Fishing in American Literature

In recent years, fly fishing has become a very popular form of fishing. However, the noble art of catching a trout on a fly has a long tradition in American literature. Through texts and films, this course will examine texts which use fly fishing as an expression for concerns other than catching (and releasing) fish. Readings will include works by Ernest Hemingway, M.R. Montgomery, Norman Maclean, Margot Page, Rick Lyons, and John Gierach. Class will meet three times a week.
Evaluation will be based on a 10-page paper.
No prerequisites. Enrollment limited to 20.
Cost to student: $30 covering books and Xeroxes.
Meeting time: mornings.

WONG

HIST 015 "Look! Up in the Sky!": The Comic Book Superhero in American Popular Culture, 1938-1988 (Same as American Studies 015)

This course will examine American comic books from the late 1930s through the present, focusing on the emergence and evolution of the comic book superhero as a series of cultural icons-efforts to craft a national sense of heroic parameters and possibilities. Specific areas of exploration will include the impact of World War II and the Cold War on American popular culture; adapting the hero to an age of nuclear warfare; gender constructions, women's liberation and women superheroes of the 1960s and 70s; and the emergence of the anti-hero over the 1980s.
The course will meet for two hours, three times a week, to view slides and discuss readings. Reading will consist of both primary texts (comic books), and secondary methodological and contextual readings.
In addition to informed and constructive participation in class discussions, students will write a 10-page paper towards the end of the class, analyzing a particular comic book or superhero.
No prerequisites. Enrollment limited to 20.
Cost to student: approximately $60 for books and Xeroxes.
Meeting time: afternoons.

F. DALZELL (Instructor)
WOOD (Sponsor)

Frederick Dalzell is the Albion Fellow in American Maritime History at the Williams-Mystic Program.

HIST 016 "Once Upon a Time:" American History through Historical Fiction (Same as American Studies 016)

Over the past two hundred years, authors as diverse as Washington Irving, Winston Churchill, Toni Morrison and Gore Vidal have all tried to retell the story of our nation in their fictional writings. This course will introduce students to some of the basic events and themes of American History through a study of major works of historical fiction. We will examine how several key turning points in our nation's past, such as the American Revolution, the Civil War, and the Civil Rights Movement have been represented and interpreted by different novelists and short story writers over time. We will also compare some of these fictional accounts with very short thematic concerns of novelists and professional historians in an attempt to understand the broader relationship between history and fiction. Some of the texts that may be covered in the course include: James Fenimore Cooper's Drums Along the Mohawk, Charles Johnson's Middle Passage, Gore Vidal's Lincoln, Michael Shaara's The Killer Angels, Lewis Nordan's Wolf Whistle, and the films Last of the Mohicans, Gone With the Wind, Glory, and Malcolm X.
Students in the class will be required to attend all class sessions and will be given a choice between writing a 10-page interpretative essay on several assigned texts or writing their own short work of historical fiction. Class will meet three times a week.
No prerequisites. Enrollment limited to 20.
Cost to student: $30 covering books and Xeroxes
Meeting time: afternoons.

JESSICA MEYERSON '90 (Instructor)
WOOD (Sponsor)

Jessica Meyerson'90 is completing her Ph.D. in History at Princeton University.

HIST 031 Senior Thesis

To be taken by students registered for History 493-494.

History of Science

HSCI 017 Exploration, Science, and the Environment (Same as Environmental Studies 017)

For Winter Study, would you rather go to a Pacific island, the far reaches of the earth's atmosphere, the deep ocean, the Arctic or Antarctic? You can do all that and stay in Williamstown by studying how the activities of exploration and science became intertwined in Western culture. Starting with the voyages of James Cook in the late eighteenth century, explorers adopted modern science into their arsenal of tools to discover, understand, and claim the natural environment in the name of the nations they represented. This class will use primary and secondary historical sources, as well as movies and historical literary sources, to study how explorers of various portions of the globe used science to define, utilize and control these newly discovered environments. Until the nineteenth century, explorers were busy finding `new' lands and islands. After most coastlines had been located, names and claimed by westerners, explorers turned to the end of the earth-the deep ocean, the jungle, the rainforest, the atmosphere, and the Arctic and Antarctic. In two projects, a paper and a poster presentation to the class, students will investigate the convergence of science and exploration for a natural environment of their choice (categories will be: Distant Lands and Islands; Ocean and Atmosphere; the Arctic and Antarctic). Questions addressed by the course will include: how the theme of science and exploration became integrated into our culture; and what the historical legacy of the conjunction of science and exploration means for our contemporary understanding and use of natural environments.
The class will meet for two hours three times a week.
No prerequisites. Enrollment limited to 15.
Cost to student: $30.
Meeting time: mornings.

HELEN M. ROZWADOWSKI (Instructor)
D. BEAVER (Sponsor)

Helen Rozwadowski, Williams '86, a double major in Biology and English, has recently received her doctorate in the history of science from the University of Pennsylvania. Her thesis work focused on the history of nineteenth-century oceanography and exploration.

INTERDEPARTMENTAL PROGRAM FOR EXPERIMENTAL AND CROSS-DISCIPLINARY STUDIES

EXPR 010 Inventing New Media '98: Advanced Section

This is a workshop for experimentation and invention using digital production tools and software. All workshop participants will work in one or more of the following areas: digital imagery (Photoshop, Illustrator and Debabelizer); digital video and animation (Premier, After Effects, animation works); Digital Audio (Sound Edit and Deck II); and interactive programming (Director and HTML) towards the creation of an on-line interactive project. We will also be reviewing existing interactive media on and off-line and have the opportunity to participate in discussion and lectures with visiting artists, authors and producers of new media.
Students will be evaluated on their final delivery of digital media and on their ability to collaborate and work through design and production problems in groups.
First priority will be given to those students who attended Inventing New Media '97 or who have previous media or digital tools experience. If you did not attend last year's workshop, please submit a paragraph on your experience or send a work sample. Enrollment limited to 8.
Cost to students: $40.00 for removable storage of personal work (or three zip discs) Although file server space will be allocated for workshop data, each student will be responsible for storing back ups of their personal working files.
Meeting time: morning lectures; afternoon labs. Some evening meetings/gatherings may also be required.

Alexandra Smith '81 and David Furlow '80 (Instructors)
TAYLOR (Sponsor)

The instructors' design and development work in both the U.S. and the U.K. has focused mainly on commercial and educational CD-ROM authoring and production. They have also consulted on projects for Philips, Sony, Warner Brothers, and Macmillan Publishing. Their CD-ROM PAWS (Personal Automated Wagging System-a navigational cartoon dog simulator) was named best Children's Title of 1995, Cannes (Milia) and British Interactive Media Award 1996.

LITERARY STUDIES

LIT 010 The Fashioning of Fashion (Same as French 010)

(See under French for full description.)

LIT 031 Senior Thesis

To be taken by students registered for Literary Studies 493,494.

MATHEMATICS

MATH 010 The Game of Chess

Chess is a beautiful and very inspiring game. No game has surpassed chess in its popularity in all countries for many centuries. One of the oldest games, it has a history spanning 1400 years and has offered inspiration to scientists, artists, and writers. Such is the subtlety of the game that no one has been able to determine whether it is an art, a science, a sport, or a combination of them all. This course will be an introduction to the beautiful and inspiring world of chess. Topics include basic principles: openings, middle-game and endings; mathematical aspects of chess; general theory of a middle-game play; end-game strategies. We will look at some famous games, discuss chess problems and organize a tournament among students and computer programs.
Evaluation will be based on class participation and problem assignments.
No prerequisites. Enrollment limited to 12.
Cost to student: $50 for xeroxed materials and miscellaneous supplies.
Meeting time: afternoons.

CHKHENKELI

MATH 011 Gambling, Game Shows, Money, and Analytical Reasoning

Have you ever been bothered by the way contestants bid on the Price is Right game show? How would you bid? Where would you drop the Plinko chips? Have you ever wondered what good strategies are for casino games? In this course, we will develop reasonable strategies for various games. In addition, we will study such problems as how to split an inheritance fairly among beneficiaries, how cities could save money on the cost of garbage collection, and how airlines could improve their efficiency. If you love games and you like to save money, this is the course for you.
Evaluation will be based on regular attendance, class participation and three or four short (three page) papers.
No prerequisites. Enrollment limited to 20.
Cost to student: under $50.
Meeting time: mornings.

LOEPP

MATH 012 How to Solve it: The Mathematics of Puzzles and Games (Same as Computer Science 012)

Rubic's Cube, Instant Insanity, Spin-Out, Towers of Hanoi, Nim, the Fifteen Puzzle. Fun? Frustrating? All of these puzzles and games, and many more, have underlying mathematical structures which can be exploited not only to help us discover solutions but also to allow us to design new puzzles and games. In fact, studying games and puzzles often gives us new insights into mathematics. In this course, we will examine a variety of such puzzles and games, exploring the ways in which mathematics helps us to describe, understand, and (hopefully!) solve them.
Evaluation will be based upon participation, completion of homework assignments, and a project involving the use of mathematics in the analysis of an existing game or puzzle or in the design of a new one. Class will meet three days each week, for two hours each day.
Prerequisite: either Mathematics 103 (or higher) or the equivalent, or both a compulsion for solving puzzles and permission of the instructor. Enrollment limited to 30.
Cost to student: at most $50 for text, materials and/or puzzles and games.
Meeting time: mornings.

Lenhart

MATH 014 Broken Symmetry and Modernistic Despair (Same as Philosophy 014 and Physics 014)

How do we know anything? Certainly none of us understands the true workings of our minds, our society and of the universe, but still, overall, at the day-to-day level, we seem to be able to think and to make frequently accurate predictions. The very fact that we do have this partial understanding of the world without having any real clue as its underlying foundations tells us something deep about how the world is put together. This has become a major theme in physics in the last 25 years, going by various names such as renormalization, broken symmetry or emergence. Taking these physics ideas and trying, by analogy, to apply them to questions in the arts and humanities can help ease the despair created by modernism.
For the first forty years of this century, the intellectual world exploded with new types of art and literature, giving birth to what is now called `modernism'. But the initial excitement about this revolutionary change eventually transformed into a despair and a disbelief in the very possibility of progress. We were left with the belief that there are many methods, all somehow equally valid and equally worthwhile.
This course will discuss, at a very intuitive level, the new physics ideas of renormalization and broken symmetry coupled with the idea of complexity from math and computer science. We will then try to apply, possibly inappropriately, these ideas to issues in art, literature and the humanities.
Evaluation will be primarily based on a 10-page paper. Class will meet three to four times per week.
No background in math, physics, and/or art is required. Enrollment limited to 30.
Cost to student: $30 for books.
Meeting time: afternoons.

GARRITY

MATH 015 Mock Trial (Same as Special 015)

This course gives each student the chance to act as a litigation lawyer in a full-fledged courtroom mock trial, complete with witnesses, a judge, and a jury. To this end, students practice basic techniques of interviewing witnesses, planning case strategy, conducting direct and cross-examination, making and answering objections, and delivering an opening statement and closing argument.
Preceding the trials, class sessions will meet four days per week for two hours in the morning, with regular assignments for class presentations.
Students will be evaluated on the basis of attendance, class participation, class presentations, and performance in the mock trials.
No prerequisites. Preference given to upperclass students. Enrollment limited to 12.
Cost to student: $10 for materials.
Meeting time: mornings.

DAVID W. MORGAN (Instructor)
ADAMS (Sponsor)

MATH 016 Fantasy Novels of C.S. Lewis and Charles Williams (Same as English 016)

Both Lewis and Williams were members of The Inklings, the remarkable group of British authors and thinkers who met regularly at "The Eagle and Child" Pub in Oxford, where writers (Including Tolkien) read their works in progress to one another. Lewis is well-known; the works of Williams have received less recognition, but were admired by W.H. Auden, Dorothy L. Sayers, and T.S. Eliot. Both Lewis and Williams approached their work as staunch Anglican Christians, and their point of view will be respected in this course; however, their novels can speak to the lives of all readers who are sensitive to their own world and to human relationships.
Students will read the Ransom ("Space") trilogy of Lewis (Out of the Silent Planet, Perelandra, and That Hideous Strength) and three novels of Williams (War in Heaven, Descent into Hell, and All Hallows' Eve) for discussion in class, with emphasis upon themes such as co-inherence and substitution.
To qualify for a Pass, students must expect to attend and to participate in all discussions and will write either (1) a 10- to 20-page short story in the style of, incorporating some ideas of, or using literary techniques of the six novels read, or (2) an expository paper of 15- to 20-pages relating some or all of the novels read to other fiction by these two authors or to works of comparable writers such as George MacDonald or Madeleine l'Engle.
Enrollment limited to 18.
Cost to student: $40-50 for books.
Meeting time: mornings.

V. HILL

MATH 030 Senior Project

To be taken by candidates for honors in Mathematics other than by thesis route.

MATH 031 Senior Thesis

To be taken by students registered for Mathematics 493-494.

MUSIC

MUS 010 Introduction to the Music of Duke Ellington

An historical approach to the music of Duke Ellington and Bully Stayhorn, following the development of Ellinton's music from the 1920's through his death in 1974. There will be extensive reading and listening assignments.
The class will meet for six class hours per week and attendance at all classes is expected unless excused for reason of illness.
A passing grade is assigned upon satisfactory completion of either a biographical paper on an "Ellingtonian," or an analytical paper on an Ellington or Ellington/Strayhorn composition.
Prerequisite: musical literacy sufficient to follow a score is required. Enrollment limited to 30.
Cost to student: $30 for text plus approximately $100 for trip to New York for concert.
Meeting time: afternoons.

A. JAFFE (Instructor)
KECHLEY (Sponsor)

A. Jaffe is Artist-in-Residence in Jazz and Director of the Williams Jazz Ensemble.

MUS 011 Marimba Music of Zimbabwe

This course will introduce students to the marimba music and culture of Zimbabwe. Students will have readings and discussions concerning Zimbabwean history and culture and will learn to play the marimba. The course will culminate in a public performance in the last week of winter study. The course will be taught by Professor Ernest Brown, director of the Zambezi Marimba Band, who will be assisted by visiting artist-in-residence Alport Mhlanga, a Zimbabwean composer, teacher and marimba player.
All students must be present for the first class. Students may miss no more than one class and still receive a passing grade. Additional rehearsals will be required on some weekends or evenings. Students must practice on their own; this is an intensive workshop.
No prerequisite. Previous musical experience helpful, but not required. Interested students must submit to Professor Brown a statement containing their name, phone and SU number, explaining their musical background and reasons for wanting to take the course. An audition may be required. Enrollment limited to 12.
Meeting time: Students will be divided into two groups according to ability. Beginners will meet in the morning, while more advanced students will meet in the afternoon.

E. BROWN

MUS 012 Meeting the Century's Music Head-on

A chance to become acquainted with major styles of music of the first half of the twentieth century and to attend performances of representative major works in live performances by several major musical organizations. Lectures in Williamstown will precede journeys to Boston and New York to hear the Boston Symphony (Janacek), the New York Philharmonic (new commissioned work and Copland) and the Metropolitan Opera (Britten, Stravinsky.)
At the end of the month, students will write a paper summarizing the different styles of the compositions heard, and reflect on the performance situation now - perhaps new to them. A "Pass" grade is determined by attendance, participation in class and at concerts, and the written paper due at the end of the month.
No prerequisite. Not open to students who have had Music 101 or 103. Open especially to those with no involvement in music on campus who wish to find out about the musical experience. Enrollment limited to 15.
Cost to student: about $250 (four concert-opera admissions, transportation, meals, two overnights in New York-we use group transportation and group rates for lodging.)
Meeting time: morning, except for travel to out of town concerts.

K. C. Roberts

MUS 013 English Handbell Choir

A performance Winter Study project, the handbell choir will rehearse two hours per day, five days per week. A five-octave set of English handbells will be used. Repertoire will be wide-ranging, from the classics to popular music, from original compositions to arrangements. Difficulty of repertoire will depend on the skill of the ensemble as it develops.
Ringers must be able to read music well, but no prior experience playing handbells is needed. Bells are quite easy to play; ringers will be taught various handbell ringing techniques, and go on to experience the process and teamwork necessary to build a musical ensemble.
Each student must make at least one written arrangement for handbells of a tune of their choice; the instructor will approve that choice and assist in arranging if necessary. Each arrangement will be read by the ensemble, and some will be rehearsed and performed.
The final week of winter study will consist of several performances of materials mastered during the previous three weeks of rehearsals.
A passing grade is assigned upon satisfactory completion of at least one arrangement and attendance at all rehearsals unless excused only for reason of illness.
Current ringers welcome, as are others willing to learn. Enrollment limited to 12.
Cost to student: none.
Meeting time: mornings.

D. MOORE

MUS 017 Singing School: Popular Protestant American Religious Music (Same as American Studies 017 and Special 017)

(See under Special for full description.)

MUS 031 Senior Thesis

To be taken by students registered for Music 493, 494.

NEUROSCIENCE

NSCI 031 Senior Thesis

To be taken by students registered for Neuroscience 493-494.

PHILOSOPHY

PHIL 010 Philosophical Puzzles

For good reason, the Philosophy Department at Williams tends to look at philosophical problems as developing out of historically located texts and situations. There is another approach, however, which is perhaps better suited to Winter Study: seeing philosophical problems as arising from puzzles. We will spend January discussing such questions as: Could God create a stone so heavy He couldn't lift it? Is this merely a joke or does it show the impossibility of a perfectly omnipotent being? Is the set of all sets that do not contain themselves a member of itself or not? Why do some philosophers consider that last question one of the great questions of the twentieth century? Do those philosophers have too much time on their hands? We will examine puzzles from the Liar to the Prisoner's Dilemma, in fields from metaphysics to ethics.
Requirements: class participation, an in class presentation, a paper, a deep mind, and a sense of humor.
Enrollment limited to 30.
Cost to student: two to four paperback books.
Meeting time: mornings.

GERRARD

PHIL 012 Greek Love and Contemporary Theory

Plato placed the analysis of erotic love between men at the very heart of some of his most powerful and important dialogues. He linked eros to citizenship, military valor, human excellence, and the practice of philosophy itself. He used its dynamic to shed light on some of his most important notions, such as the distinction between nature and convention, the relation of knowledge to virtue, the centrality of citizenship for self-making, and the pervasiveness of desire as an issue for politics and philosophy. At the same time, these dialogues enact a complex, multi-vocal relation to their subject matter. Plato appears both to celebrate and interrogate the pederasty of his time: rich in irony and ambiguity, his works have been taken to provide a strong defense of love between men and to argue for the transcendence of all erotic aims.
This seminar focuses on the ways in which the practice of pederasty among the ancient Greeks has informed contemporary efforts to theorize sexuality and to reflect more generally on the role of desire in social and intellectual life. The course will begin with close and careful readings of texts, to be selected from Plato's Lysis, Charmides, Symposium and Phaedrus. We will then turn to late nineteenth and twentieth century studies in which Plato's texts and Athenian practices have shaped a new discourse on sexuality. Texts will be selected from works of: John Addington Symonds, Sigmund Freud, K. J. Dover, Michel Foucault, Luce Irigaray, Jacques Derrida, Martha C. Nussbaum, John Winkler, and David Halperin. Theoretical issues will include the historical imbrication of Greek pederasty with misogyny and sexism, the intersections between male same-sex desire and conceptions of democratic citizenship, the role of nineteenth-century Hellenism in England and Germany in mounting an ethical defense of same-sex love, the continuing influence of models of desire derived from pederasty on "universalized" conceptions of human sexuality, and the "queerness" of Plato's dialogues themselves as exemplifying a radical form of situated reflection on the conditions of desire.
Students will be invited to share in selecting particular topics and readings and to take the lead in introducing discussions. They will be expected to submit a ten page paper at the conclusion of the seminar.
Enrollment limited to 30.
Meeting time: mornings.

MORRIS B. KAPLAN (Instructor)
O'CONNOR (Sponsor)

Morris B. Kaplan Assistant Professor of Philosophy at Purchase College, SUNY, returned to college teaching after several years as a trial attorney with the Legal Aid Society of New York. Routledge published his book Sexual Justice: Democratic Citizenship and the Politics of Desire in March of 1997. In 1993-94, he was the inaugural Rockefeller Foundation Fellow in Legal Humanities at the Stanford Humanities Center.

PHIL 014 Broken Symmetry and Modernistic Despair (Same as Mathematics 014 and Physics 014)

(See under Mathematics for full description.)

PHIL 025 Modernist Architecture in India

India is home to two of the most important projects by modern Western architects in a non-Western society: Le Corbusier's planned city of Chandigorh and Louis Kahn's Indian Institute of Management in Ahmedabad. It is also a country in which vast population pressures, and a complex set of cultural issues, raise acute problems for how to structure the urban environment. This class will set an experience of modern architecture in India in the context of philosophical and practical questions about aesthetics, politics, urban planning, and cross-cultural interaction.
We will fly to Delhi, and make excursions from there to Chandigarh and Ahmedabad (Stopping, along the way, to see India's most famous piece of architecture: the Taj Mahal). We will spend several days in each, walking around the projects and talking about their more and less successful aspects, and meeting in Ahmedabad with the Indian project-architect for both: Balkrishna Doshi. We will also visit a number of Doshi's own buildings, and buildings by the Indian modernist architect, Charles Correa. Correa has written a fine book on urban planning in India, and to end out trip, we will invite him to spend several days with us walking around contemporary structures in Delhi, and explaining to us the variety of aesthetic and social issues with which, in his opinion, architecture in India must now contend.
Each student must hand in a journal, in addition to a 10-page paper, or a set of annotated drawings, or an architectural project he/she conceives for one of the places we visit.
Enrollment limited to 25.
Cost to student: approximately $1680.

AMY REICHERT and SAMUEL FLEISCHACKER (Instructors)

Amy Reichert is a practicing architect who has taught two classes in the Art History department. Samuel Fleischacker teaches aesthetics as well as political philosophy. Both instructors share an interest in modernism and India.

PHIL 026 Women's Issues in Contemporary India (Same as Women's Studies 026)

This course is an experience-based introduction to women's issues in contemporary India. Rather than focus on the oppression of women, we will look at the ways in which women are working to gain control of and better their lives in three concrete contexts. To this end, we will spend three weeks in India with three non-governmental organizations which work in the areas of employment, small-scale fishing, and literacy. We will begin by visiting the Self-Employed Women's Association in Lucknow, U.P., an organization distinguished in the work it has done to provide women loans, training, and access to markets so that they can control the production and sale of handicrafts. Our second visit will be with the coast-to-coast National Fishworkers' Forum. The NFF has been engaged in a long struggle against large-scale mechanized fishing practices that are destructive to the local environment and damaging to the livelihood of small-scale fisherfolk. The site we will visit is in Trivandrum district in the southern state of Kerala, where women, who traditionally have sold the fish catch in the local market, have become increasingly active in addressing women's issues through their involvement in the NFF. Finally, we will visit Nirantar, a Delhi-based women's organization which works on literacy for adult women. Nirantar has been involved in setting up village-level community literacy projects in the state of Rajasthan, which have become centres for women to mobilize politically: for example, soon after beginning to attend literacy classes, women have marched on government offices to demand that their water supply be improved; they have run for local office; they have organized to support rape victims. Nirantar has also establised a residential college for newly-literate women to study general science, history, literature-a "liberal arts" curriculum. Through readings, lectures, and discussions with organizers, fieldworkers, and participants, we will seek to answer such questions as: what kinds of issues are women's issues, in these contexts? What connections do women draw between their own concerns and various social movements, such as environmentalism? How have their new activities changed these women's lives? Their views of themselves and their futures and the world? Their relationships to their families and communities? What changes have women brought about in the structures of their families and communities?
The areas we will be traveling through have much else to offer the traveler-more than we can cover-but we will squeeze in tours of the historic Islamic monuments of Lucknow, the backwaters of Kerala, a desert palace in Rajasthan, and of course, the Taj Mahal.
Requirements: a journal to be kept during the trip, and a final project-written, or in some other form (e.g., art work) to be determined by students in consultation with the instructor. Ideally, this final project will be something that we will be able to share with the people we have learned from in our travels.
Prerequisites: no coursework, but flexibility, willingness to tolerate some physical discomfort, and respect for local cultural norms are a must. Note: interested students must consult the instructor before registration. Enrollment limited to 10.
Cost to student: $2,500.

KAMTEKAR

PHIL 031 Senior Thesis

To be taken by students registered for Philosophy 493-494.

PHYSICS

PHYS 010 Light and Holography

This course will examine the art and science of holography. It will introduce modern optics at a level appropriate for a non-scientist, giving the necessary theoretical background in lectures and discussion. Demonstrations will be presented and students will make several kinds of holograms in the lab. Thanks to a grant from the National Science Foundation, we have seven well-equipped holography darkrooms available for student use.
At the beginning of WSP, the class will meet for lecture and discussion three times a week and for lab twice a week. Later classes will be mainly laboratory. Students will be evaluated on the basis of regular attendance, completion of four laboratory exercises, and a holography laboratory project or a 10-page paper.
No prerequisites. Enrollment limited to 30. Preference will be given to students with no previous college course in physics more advanced than Physics 100.
Cost to student: about $50 for holographic film, chemicals, and photocopies.
Meeting time: morning lectures; afternoon labs.

JONES and FORKEY

PHYS 012 Meet the Right Side of Your Brain: Drawing as a Learnable Skill

Representational drawing is a not merely a gift of birth or a magical ability granted by angels, but a learnable skill. If you ever wanted to draw, but doubted you had the ability or believed you could not learn, then this course is for you. This intensive course utilizes discoveries in brain research to teach representational drawing. By using simple techniques and extensive exercises you will discover and develop the perceptual shift from your symbol based left hemisphere to your visually based right hemisphere. This cognitive shift enables you to accurately see and realistically represent the physical world. You will learn to draw a convincing portrait, self-portrait, and still life. This course is designed to develop your powers of observation and enhance your innate creative problem solving abilities, which are applicable in any field. Students need no previous artistic experience, just the willingness and desire to learn a new skill. Students will be expected to attend and participate in all sessions. They will also be required to keep a sketchbook recording their progress and complete a final project.
Evaluation will be based on participation, effort, and development. The class will meet three times per week (about 10 hours lecture and group exercises) with substantial additional independent student work.
No prerequisites. Enrollment limited to 30.
Cost to student: text and drawing materials (approximately $30).
Meeting time: afternoons.

Bill Ziemer (Instructor)
Jones (Sponsor)

Bill Ziemer is a multimedia artist living in Williamstown.

PHYS 013 Automotive Mechanics

The purpose of this course will be to provide an understanding of the basic function of the major components of the modern automobile. Through lectures, demonstrations, and hands-on experience, individuals will learn basic maintenance of an automobile. In addition, students will be expected to study in depth one of the major automotive systems which include carburetor or fuel-injection systems, the lubrication and cooling system, the electrical system, the steering, brake and suspension system, and the power train for both manual and automatic transmissions.
The course will meet two hours a day, three times a week for classroom instruction. In addition, students will meet at the Flamingo Motors in Williamstown one evening each week for practical demonstrations and hands-on activity.
Students will be required to attend class regularly, read assigned material from the text, actively participate in work at the garage, and pass written midterm and final examinations.
No prerequisites. Preference given to seniors. Enrollment limited to 30. The class will be broken into three sections for lab work. Cost to student: approximately $40 for text.
Meeting time: morning and evenings.

MICHAEL FRANCO (Instructor)
JONES (Sponsor)

Michael Franco is the owner of Flamingo Motors in Williamstown.

PHYS 014 Broken Symmetry and Modernistic Despair (Same as Mathematics 014 and Philosophy 014)

(See under Mathematics for full description.)

PHYS 016 Confronting the Mysterious

Every day we encounter claims of extra-scientific phenomena such as telepathy, ESP, UFOs, astrology, faith healing, dowsing, and crop circles. Are they real? Should you invest money in cold fusion research or a device which liberates energy from the vacuum? Can one travel faster-than-light or backward in time? How does one go about answering these types of questions? This course will study the scientific methods used to access evidence for phenomena that extend beyond the present boundaries of science. Readings will include works by Carl Sagan and The Amazing Randi, a professional magician who uses his special expertise to examine claims of psychic phenomena.
The class will meet three times a week for informal lectures and discussion.
Evaluation will be based in part on regular attendance and class participation. In addition, students will work together in pairs to study some unusual phenomenon in depth, and present their results to the class in a debate format. The preparation and length of each argument will be equivalent to at least a ten page paper.
No prerequisites. Enrollment limited to 30.
Cost to student: readings only.
Meeting time: mornings.

S. BOLTON

PHYS 022 Research Participation

Several members of the department will have student projects available dealing with their own research or that of current senior thesis students. Approximately 35 hours per week of study and actual research participation will be expected from each student. Students will be required to keep a notebook and write a five-page paper summarizing their work. Those interested should consult with members of the department as early as possible in the registration period or before to determine details of projects then expected to be available.
Prerequisite: permission of specific instructor. Enrollment limited to 1 or 2 per project.
Cost to student: none.
Meeting time: to be arranged with instructor.

JONES

PHYS 031 Senior Thesis

To be taken by students registered for Physics 493, 494.

JONES and members of the department

POLITICAL ECONOMY

POEC 031 Honors Thesis

To be taken by students registered for Political Economy 493.

POLITICAL SCIENCE

PSCI 010 Moral Choices in Difficult Times

How should people choose when the moral outcomes are uncertain or difficult? We live in peaceable times and largely we escape the moral dilemmas that others have had to confront. How would we have chosen, how should we choose? The course will explore both real and fictionalize treatments (e.g., Miller's play, The Crucible and Kazan's movie, On the Waterfront). The materials will be both current and ancient (e.g., Sophocle's Antigone and Philcotetes).
Requirements: class meetings and one essay. Class will meet three times a week for two hours each session.
No prerequisites. Enrollment limited to 30.
Meeting time: afternoons.

MARCUS

PSCI 011 Conformists and Rebels? The Fifties and the Sixties

Are you a conformist or a rebel? Do most rebels really crave something worth conforming to? We will explore the character of conformism and rebellion by attending to the character of the two recent decades that symbolize each: the 1950's and the 1960's. The 1950's seemed to establish a politics of contentment. But such contentment was never as widespread as its celebrators assumed, and soon it in turn gave way to the rebellion of the sixties. We live in the wake of the many reforms enacted during that rebellion. To examine and assess the political legacy of the sixties and the fifties, we will consider readings in social and political thought and histories of the period, such as The Lonely Crown, One Dimensional Man, The Organizational Man, The Feminine Mystique, Growing Up Absurd, and Silent Spring. Selected films such as Rebel Without a Cause, and Easy Rider will complement the picture gained through readings. Third, we will consider various contemporary assessments of the 1960's in order to inform our own assessment of their legacy.
Requirements: class participation and one 10- to 15-page paper. Class will meet three times a week for two hours each session.
No prerequisites. Enrollment limited to 30.
Cost to student: approximately $100 for books and readings.
Meeting time: mornings.

MUIRHEAD

PSCI 012 The Politics of Gender-Bending: Drag, Camp, Butch and Fem in the Life and Movies of the End of the Twentieth Century (Same as Women's Studies 012)

In the last ten or twenty years, just about every mass-mediated paragon of woman and man as Dustin Hoffman, Julie Andrews, Kurt Russell, Barbra Streisand, Gérard Depardieu, Whoopi Goldberg, Robin Williams, Ellen Barkin, Patrick Swayze, Wesley Snipes and the Canadian figure-skating pair of Lloyd Eisler and Isabelle Brasseur have won acclaim for their cross-dressed performances, fixed up as someone of the opposite sex. Even though the 80s and 90s have been thought of as the rebound of political conservatism after the 60s and 70s, the same era has been the renaissance of gender-bending, to the point that even politicians have gotten into the act: witness New York City Mayor Rudy Giuliani's unlikely appearance in early 1997 in full and lavish drag, as "Rudia Giuliandrews," alongside not only four cross-dressed deputy mayors (two men and two women) but accompanied by Julie Andrews in her get-up as a woman who plays a female impersonator from the Broadway show Victor/Victoria.
This course asks the questions: What is going on here? And what is the politics of this mass-mediated revival of gender-bending in recent film and culture? How in the world do we make sense of Dennis Rodman or RuPaul or k.d. lang? To figure this out, we'll spend some time focusing on the politics of gender-bending in the communities that have been most devoted to it-lesbians and gay men-and how the meanings of gender-bending in lesbians and gay worlds have shifted as they've been gleefully adopted by society as a whole. It may be that gender-bending does not really replace standard notions of gender with androgyny; instead, the elevation of the feminine "glamour queen" and the masculine "diesel dyke" may simply reinforce the dualism of masculinity and femininity.
To explore these questions, we'll examine some historians, theorists and/or practitioners of drag, camp, butch and fem. We'll study a number of movies, beginning with two classic cases of cross-dressing (Queen Christina and Some Like It Hot). Then we'll turn to more recent films that look at the connections of gender-bending heterosexuality (Tootsie, Victor/Victoria), with farce (La Cage Aux Folles), with defiance (Outrageous!), with "passing" (The Ballad of Little Jo), with misogyny (Ménage), with race (The Associate) politics high (The Crying Game) and politics low (The Adventures of Priscilla, Queen of the Desert). Finally, we'll conclude with a look at new subcultures such as women's bodybuilding and voguing (e.g., Pumping Iron II: The Women and Paris Is Burning).
Requirements: inquisitiveness and independence, along with frequent attendance at films, regular attendance at class (thrice weekly).
Evaluation will be based on a 10-page paper (or equivalent, including videotapes, performances, etc.) at the end of WSP.
No prerequisites. All welcome. Enrollment limited to 30.
Cost to student: books and offset packet.
Meeting time: mornings.

COOK

PSCI 014 The Transition to Majority Rule in Zimbabwe and South Africa

This course deals with the peace settlements that established democratic governments in Zimbabwe and South Africa. In particular, it addresses the nature of the liberation movements, the reasons for and outcomes of negotiations between the old regime and the liberation movements, and the type of democracy that is emerging in Zimbabwe and South Africa. The course will also consider how the new governments in Zimbabwe and South Africa are developing new political institutions, how they are trying to promote social equality, and how they are dealing with the poverty and inequality they inherited from the white governments.
Requirements: class meetings and a 10-page paper. Class will meet three times a week for two hours each session.
No prerequisites.
Meeting time: afternoons.

Zimbi Mubako (Instructor)
MacDonald (Sponsor)

Mr. Mubako was an important participant in the liberation movement in Zimbabwe, has been a prominent official in independent Zimbabwe (including the Minister of Justice and Constitutional Affairs) and is currently a Judge of the High Court of Zimbabwe. In addition, he has taught in universities in Africa and Europe and is intimately familiar with South African politics.

PSCI 015 Sexuality and the Law

The gay rights struggle has occupied the attention of courts, legislative bodies and agencies at every level of federal and state government, as well as the public sector and the media. This course will examine that movement's attainments, defeats and controversies, with emphasis on the tension between the idealistic and the pragmatic. After reviewing gay history and the paths taken by other civil rights movements, this course will focus on specific issues: challenges to sodomy laws; the military ban; purges of schools and libraries; workplace protection; child custody disputes; and same gender marriage. Discussions will include strategies and reactions used by both proponents and opponents of gay rights, the use of state as well as federal constitutional arguments, and both sides' activities at the national level.
Class will meet three times a week, two hours per class.
Requirements: class participation, reading and a 10-page paper.
No prerequisites. Enrollment limited to 30.
Cost to student: xerox packet.

JOHN D. RAWLS '65 (Instructor)
MACDONALD (Sponsor)

John Rawls '65 is a New Orleans attorney who has participate in major gay rights litigation and in Louisiana politics.

PSCI 025 Recording the Civil Rights Movement

The civil rights movement, though a quite recent historic event, is generating a dynamic array of museums and memorials. These include the Martin Luther King, Jr. Center for Nonviolent Social Change in Atlanta, Georgia and special museums in Montgomery, Birmingham, Selma, and Memphis. These memorials range in subject matter. Some focus on the techniques of King and the SCLC1; others on special recognition of those who gave their lives; others on the details of specific local campaigns. This Winter Study will visit and observe the development of these collections. The goal is to undertake study and examination to determine how the story is being developed in the exhibitions and how this relates to materials available for classroom teaching through academic texts, including the pattern(s) in use of multi-media. The group will meet with official curators and benefactors of the museums and with persons active in the movement. The WSP will convene at the beginning of January and begin background discussion on civil rights campaigns and the museum movement to recognize them. The group will arrive in Atlanta on the eve of the Martin Luther King, Jr. national birthday and attend the ceremonies at the King Center on Monday. We will then travel to sights in Birmingham (Tuesday), Montgomery (Wednesday), Selma (Thursday), and Jackson (Friday) and culminate in Memphis (Saturday). The group will then travel to Highlander, in New Market, Tennessee for summary and reflection on Sunday and Monday. The group will return to Williamstown on Tuesday.
Requirements: (1) a 10-page paper evaluating the strengths and weaknesses in the coverage of the sites and (2) a mock guide for lay persons to assist in selecting memorials to visit.
No prerequisites. Enrollment limited to 10.
Cost to student: $1,400 plus course packet.

A. WILLINGHAM

PSCI 030 Senior Essay

To be taken by students registered for Political Science 491 or 492.

PSCI 031 Senior Thesis

To be taken by students registered for Political Science 493-494.

PSCI 032 Individual Project

To be taken by students registered for Political Science 495 or 496.

PSCI 033 Advanced Study in American Politics

To be taken by students registered for Political Science 481-482.

PSYCHOLOGY

PSYC 011 Fictional Worlds

This course explores the role of fantasy, imagination, and magic in the lives of both children and adults. We will examine why children love fairy tales, develop imaginary companions, and believe in supernatural phenonmena. We consider why some children are more prone to believe in fiction and fantasy than others, and what happens to these beliefs in adulthood. For example, are adults who had a childhood imaginary companion different from those who did not? Does belief in magic disappear entirely in adulthood?
Evaluation will be based on active participation in class discussion and a final 10-page paper.
No prerequisite. Enrollment limited to 15.
Cost to student: approximately $30.00.
Meeting time: mornings.

KAVANAUGH

PSYC 012 The Pursuit of Happiness

What makes people happy? Fame and fortune? Love and fulfillment? Winning the lottery? Are men happier than women? Are the young happier than the elderly? Is religious faith associated with happiness? Does happiness vary by culture? In this course, we'll look at social psychological research on the causes and consequences of happiness and discover the (occasionally surprising) answers to these and other questions. We'll also look at the other side of the coin: What makes people unhappy, how people deal with tragedy and unhappiness, and what people regret most in life and why. A theme throughout the course will be the application of the various research findings to living our own happy lives.
Evaluation will be based on student participation in discussions as well as a final 10 page paper.
No prerequisites. Enrollment limited to 15.
Cost to student: $15-20.
Meeting time: afternoons.

SAVITSKY

PSYC 013 Genetics and Disease: the Biology, Psychology, and Ethics of Genetic Testing (Same as Chemistry 013 and Special 013)

How much of a role do your genes play in disease? What is genetic testing? What are the social and public policy issues surrounding genetic testing? This course will provide current information on how disease-related genes are identified, the availability and reliability of genetic tests, and the actual testing methods in current use. We will consider the contribution of genetic predisposition toward illness compared with other known risk factors, including behavior, personality, and stress. We will also discuss the myriad ethical, moral and economic issues that surround genetic testing and counseling. With the completion of the Human Genome Project in 2005, decisions regarding who will be tested and who will have access to this information will be addressed by both judicial and legislative bodies. Our goal for this course is to supply you with sufficient scientific information and theoretical perspective that you will be able to make significant contributions to the coming public discussion of these complex issues.
The class will meet three times per week for two hours. Approximately 50% of class time will be spent in group discussion of selected readings. Students will prepare three written evaluations of case studies, and will critique each others' writing in class. The final meeting will be devoted to an in-class debate.
Evaluation will be based on participation in class discussions and debate, and by the written assignments.
No prerequisites. Enrollment limited to 30.
Cost to student: none.
Meeting time: mornings.

FRIEDMAN and WEISS

PSYC 014 Human Behavior in the Holocaust

What does it take to turn an ordinary person into a cold-blooded killer? Under what circumstances will ordinary men and women condone, accept, and encourage conditions of horror, humiliation, and widespread cruelty? Why do some individuals give aide to victims of oppression at the risk of their own lives? What influences the altruistic response in people? How can we recognize the human potentials lurking within each of us? These and other searching questions of human behavior will be explored in order to better understand how people made the Holocaust possible.
We will examine the psychological extremes of human action as portrayed in selected, rarely seen documentary films and eyewitness written accounts of the most significant and traumatic event in twentieth-century history. We will study an era which profoundly altered our understanding of human nature and the extent to which human behavior can develop. Topics covered: understanding violence and depravity versus care and compassion as human motivators; the human response to bigotry and hatred; factors in human denial and the distortion of reality; conditions of human bravery and examples of self-sacrifice.
Requirements: attendance in class and a final exam.
Prerequisite: one of the following: an introductory course in psychology, sociology, anthropology, criminology, history, or religious studies. Enrollment limited to 30.
Cost to student: approximately $60 for books.
Meeting time: mornings.

ELIZABETH WILEN-BERG (Instructor)
GOETHALS (Sponsor)

Dr. Elizabeth Wilen-Berg is a licensed psychologist in private practice in Pittsfield, Massachusetts. Dr. Wilen-Berg's mother is a holocaust survivor who participated in the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising in 1943 and was sent to a Nazi extermination camp.

PSYC 015 Effective Negotiating and Conflict Management

Conflict is part of daily life and a common dynamic of human relationships and interactions. While we may feel like avoiding conflict, it is better to work toward resolution. In this course, we will examine negotiating and resolving conflict from a win/win perspective. We will examine what causes conflict and the role of communication in its resolution including listening and assertiveness skills. We will examine how to create an effective atmosphere for resolution, how to overcome anger and mistrust, give and receive criticism, build positive power and deal with difficult people. Through the use of videotaping and reflection, we will focus on developing one's own style of handling conflict. Class discussions will be based on assigned books, viewing of films and real life case examples. Students will be required to complete readings before class meetings, participate in class discussions and videotaping, keep a journal and write a 10-page final paper.
No prerequisites. Enrollment limited to 15.
Cost to student: approximately $50.
Meeting time: mornings.

SUSAN CONKLIN (Instructor)
GOETHALS (Sponsor)

Susan Conklin, L.I.C.S.W., B.C.D. is a psychotherapist in private practice in Williamstown. She is an adjunct assistant professor at North Adams State College, Education Department, Graduate Division and she is a human resource consultant and motivational speaker for corporations, agencies and schools on various aspects of communication and relationships.

PSYC 016 Chinese Medicine and the Five Elements

In this course we will look at Chinese Medicine from the perspective of the Five Elements. We will look at the historical roots and theory of Chinese Medicine, synthesizing Taoism and Confucianism. To start, we will look at the Nei Jing, Lao Tzu and the I ching. The course will focus on understanding the theory behind acupuncture and herbal medicine, as well as the practical application of diagnosis and treatment. Students will learn how to take pulses, do tongue diagnosis and find acupuncture points. Each of the Five Elements will be discussed as well as the overall theory that links different traditions of acupuncture together. The theory and practical application from diagnosis to treatment will be covered, as well as the significance of individual points.
The final 10-page paper will consist of a comparison between acupuncture and another healing tradition. The students will be expected to show an understanding of herbal medicine and the five element tradition of acupuncture and be able to compare it to another form of medicine.
No prerequisites. Enrollment limited to 15.
Cost to student: $30.
Meeting time: afternoons.

LORLI HARDIGG (Instructor)
GOETHALS (Sponsor)

Lorli Hardigg received her B.A. from Dartmouth College and then received acupuncture training in a three year master's degree program from the Traditional Acupuncture Institute in Columbia, Maryland. She is presently studying herbs in New York City. Ms. Hardigg currently practices acupuncture in her office in Williamstown.

PSYC 017 Teaching Practicum

Students interested in teaching may submit applications for a Winter Study assignment as a teacher's aide at Mt. Greylock Regional High School or at the Williamstown elementary school. Those accepted will work under the supervision of a regular member of the teaching staff and submit a report on their work at the end of the Winter Study Period. This project involves a four week commitment to full time affiliation with the school. Interested students should consult before WSP registration with Professor Kassin, 305 Bronfman. He will assist in arranging placements and monitor students' progress during the four week period.
Criteria for a pass include full time affiliation with the school and a final 10-page report. The final report should summarize the student's experiences and reflections as drawn from a daily journal.
Prerequisite: approval of Professor Kassin required. Enrollment limited to number of places available at the two participating schools.
Cost to student: none.
Meeting time: to be arranged.

KASSIN

PSYC 018 Institutional Placement

Students interested in a full-time January placement in a mental health, social service or applied psychology (e.g., advertising, law) setting may consult with members of the Psychology Department to make appropriate arrangements. Students should first make their own contacts with an institution or agency. They should also arrange to obtain a letter from a sponsor at the institution who will outline and supervise the student's duties during January. The student must agree to keep a journal and to submit a final paper summarizing and reflecting upon the experiences outlined in the journal.
Requirements: a satisfactory evaluation from the institutional sponsor and a 10-page final paper.
No prerequisites. Enrollment limited to 20.
Cost to student: none.
Meeting time: to be arranged.

KASSIN

PSYC 031 Senior Thesis

To be taken by students registered for Psychology 493-494.

RELIGION

REL 010 The Path to Bliss (Same as Asian Studies 010)

(See under Asian Studies for full description.)

REL 011 Drosh: Writing After the Bible

Simply put midrash is Bible interpretation, written commentary, imaginative takes on Bible stories. This course will focus on mining some of the richer Bible stories, and characters, i.e., Abraham, Sarah, Hagar, Ishmael, Isaac, Joseph, Miriam, Moses, Jesus, etc. and writing about them. Poetry, prose, fiction, miscellany, anything goes. There will be ongoing readings from a variety of sources (in addition to the Bible) to root ourselves in the time these events took place before we make our leaps. Those sources may include Louis Ginsberg's, Legends of the Jews, or the Torah Anthology (Yalkut Ma'em Lo'ez).
Requirements: class participation and regular attendance. Students may choose to write either: a group of poems; a one act play; a short story; a prose piece; or a combination of each.
No prerequisites. Enrollment limited to 15.
Cost to student: $50 for books and xerox's.
Meeting time: mornings.

DAVID RAFFELD (Instructor)
DARROW (Sponsor)

A poet and writer, Williamstown resident, David Raffeld has written widely on Bible stories, and has taught winter term courses at Williams in the Department of Religion, Philosophy, and English. He has also been a `Writer-in-Residence' in the Department of Theater for the production of his Issac Oratorio.

REL 012 The Book of Revelation

The aim of this course in to enable student to read the Book of Revelation with understanding. This book, written in the late first century and canonized in the Christian scriptures, has exerted a profound influence on the art, literature, film, and philosophy of history of Western Culture. The course will seek to equip students to recognize and appreciate this influence, but it will do so by giving primary attention to the book itself, rather than to the uses to which it has subsequently been put. To this end, Revelation's historical and literary background will first be discussed, and then a close reading of the book will be offered, with attention to its structure, symbolism, literary allusions, and thematic development.
Lecture and discussion sessions will be held three days a week for two hours.
Students will be evaluated on the basis of a 15-page writing assignment. They will have their choice of (1) a take-home exam or (2) a paper in which they will integrate the lecture, discussion and reading content of the course as they engage a significant passage from the book of Revelation.
No prerequisites, but any of the following will enrich students' experience: prior courses in religion, classics, or the history of the Greco-Roman period; study of Greek; knowledge of the Hebrew Bible (to which Revelation makes constant allusion). Enrollment limited to 30, with preference given to juniors and seniors.
Cost to student: $73 for required textbooks.
Meeting time: mornings.

CHRISTOPHER R. SMITH (Instructor)
DARROW (Sponsor)

The instructor is the minister of the First Baptist Church of Williamstown. He holds a Ph.D. in theological studies from Boston College, where he was teaching assistant to Dr. Anthony Saldarini of the Apocalypse Working Group of the Society of Biblical Literature's Genres Project. Dr. Smith has published articles on the Book of Revelation in several journals, including Novum Testamentum and The Journal for the Study of the New Testament.

REL 013 Biblical Hebrew in a Month (Same as Classics 013)

(See under Classics for full description.)

REL 025 From the Classical to the Islamic Worlds in Jordan and Syria (Same as African and Middle Eastern Studies 025)

In this project we will visit sites in Jordan and Syria to investigate the archaeological and architectural remains of the classical, late antique and Islamic periods in the area of the greater Levant. In so doing, we'll develop a sense for both the profound changes that were brought by the Islamic conquest of this area and also the continuities that are also detectable. We will have the opportunity to spend an extended period in Damascus, one of the oldest continuously occupied cities in the world, and also get to know modern Amman, the capital of Jordan. We will fly directly to Amman and spend a week in Jordan visiting Petra, Wadi Rum and Aqaba, as well as sites closer to Amman including Jerash, Pella Madaba and Mount Nebo. We will then travel overland to Damascus. After several days in Damascus we will travel north to visit Palmyra, Crac des Chevaliers, Buera. Lectures on the history and art of the region and extensive visit to museums will round out our investigations. Each student will arrange for a research focus with the instructor before departing and prepare a descriptive/analytical paper upon return.
Enrollment limited to 15.
Cost to student: $2400.

DARROW

REL 026 Poly-Japan: Cultural Diversity in Contemporary Japan (Same as Asian Studies 026)

(See under Asian Studies for full description.)

REL 031 Senior Thesis

To be taken by students registered for Religion 493-494.

ROMANCE LANGUAGES

FRENCH

RLFR S.P. Sustaining Program in French 101-102

Students registered for 101-102 are required to attend and pass the sustaining program during the Winter Study Period. There are three 50-minute meetings per week.

Teaching Assistant

RLFR 010 The Fashioning of Fashion (Same as Literary Studies 010)

"Fashion," Roland Barthes wrote, "is too serious and too frivolous at the same time." As a product of culture, at once trivial and essential, fashion exhibits a compulsion to create signs, to reproduce changing meanings, and to fuel the perpetual play of difference and novelty. The course will examine fashion as a system of communication, a network of variable signs, a writing (on and of the body, an ideology of socially constructed images of femininity, masculinity, and body form, a meeting point for gender, class, and political relations of power, a system for controlling the eroticized body, a temporal whirlwind of impermanence and change, a process of appropriating and normalizing the new, a playing-out of the forces of desire and consumption, an instrument for plundering and recycling the styles of the past, and, finally, a reality of everyday life constitutive of social order, collective fantasy, and personal self-definition. We will focus attention on the oppositions that fashion expresses: between the personal and the social, the private and the public, the mass-produced and the individual, the old and the new, the artificial and the natural, concealment and display, modesty and seductiveness, freedom and constraint.
Above all, we will explore the ways that fashion-in particular clothing, perfume, and cosmetics, as mediated by the advertising, publicity, photography, and "industry" of fashion-creates, reproduce, and disseminate a certain kind of "imaginary" (Imaginaire), where fictions of desire, eroticism, aesthetics, and myth circulate. Three general goals will orient our study: 1) to understand a theory of how the sign systems of fashion, fashion history, and fashion advertising produce meaning and value within culture; 2) to examine the "imaginary" of desire, fantasy, and identity produced by the creation and marketing of perfume; and 3) to analyze the "rewriting" of face and body which cosmetics and makeup (and the phenomenon of the "makeover") accomplish. Attention will be given to the history of fashion, perfume and cosmetics, primarily, but not exclusively, in nineteenth- and twentieth-century France; to the collaboration of designer, fashion house, model, wearer, and spectator in the creation and dissemination of fashion; to the creation of a "look;" to the link between fashion and "spectacle," fashion and the makeup" from the psychoanalysis of dress and the erotics of fabric to the sociology of fashion as "the ecstasy of the new, the mirage of otherness" within society from the semiotics of clothing as the endless play of difference ("signification with a message, "Baudrillard) to the notion of fashion as the interlacing of desire and death (Benjamin).
Requirements: class participation and one long paper (10-12 pages) on an original research project. Class will meet three times a week for two hours.
Prerequisite: prior permission of the instructor. Enrollment limited to 15, with preference given to juniors and seniors.
Cost to student: approximately $60 for books and offset packet.
Meeting time: mornings.

STAMELMAN

RLFR 011 Astérix the Gaul: French Culture Through the Prism of the Comic

The longevity and popularity of the Astérix comic strip series over successive generations of French (and foreign) readers can be explained, in part, by its subtle and incisive rendering of Europeanism through caricature. This course will examine some of the most enduring texts in the Astérix saga as interpretations, first, of French culture and the way the French view themselves with respect to the rest of Europe and, second, of the way they view Europe in dialogue with French cultural norms. Such issues as "la patrie" (homeland), linguistic characteristics, the idea of France, French provincial distinctiveness, France's view of a homogeneous national character seen through its own cultural diversity, and the relationship of France to other specific regional cultures will be studied as a way not only of defining the nation's historical legacy, but of coming to terms with the way it sees its place within the vision of European union. Among the texts to be studied will be Astérix the Gaul, Astérix and the Banquet, Astérix and the Normans, Astérix in Corsica, Astérix in Britain, Astérix and the Goths, Astérix in Belgium, Astérix in Switzerland. Analysis of the primary texts will be complemented by secondary cultural readings by prominent interpreters of French culture. The course will be conducted in English; readings will be in English, but those students who wish to read the texts in the original French should make arrangements in advance with the instructor. Three two-hour meetings a week.
Requirements: class participation and a 10-page paper.
No prerequisites.
Enrollment limited to 30.
Cost to students: books and reading packet only.
Meeting time: mornings.

NORTON

RLFR 025 Study French in France

This three-week intensive course in French language and culture-for beginning, intermediate, and advanced students of French-brings Williams students to Brittany, the French province known for its rugged seacoast, mysterious forests, and Celtic myths. In the port-town of Lannion, situated in the heart of Brittany, students will live, breathe and dream in French, from arrival to departure. Courses in French language are tailored to each student's linguistic level. In addition, students will simultaneously improve their language skills and their understanding of French culture by living with local families and by participating in excursions and field work designed to familiarize them with the town and with Breton customs and history. For three weeks, students will interact continuously in French with citizens of all ages of Lannion. The program is organized by the Ecole Internationale de Francais in Lannion.
Evaluation is based on students' active participation in all classes and activities and linguistic progress.
This program is open to all sophomores, juniors, and seniors.
Cost to student: $1,600 plus transportation (a $750 non-refundable deposit is required in mid-November.) This course is not defined as a "trip" for financial aid purposes. The maximum reimbursement to financial aid students is $300.

Norton

RLFR 030 Honors Essay

To be taken by candidates for honors other than by thesis route.

RLFR 031 Senior Thesis

To be taken by students registered for French 493-494.

ITALIAN

RLIT S.P. Sustaining Program for Italian 101-102

Students registered for 101-102 are required to attend and pass the sustaining program during the Winter Study Period. Three 50-minute meetings per week.

Teaching Assistant

SPANISH

RLSP S.P. Sustaining Program for Spanish 101-102

Students registered for 101-102 are required to attend and pass the sustaining program during the Winter Study Period. Three 50-minute meetings per week.

Teaching Assistant

RLSP 013 A Century of Shakespeare on Screen (Same as English 013)

This course will explore the way in which Shakespeare's works have been appropriated and adapted by film makers. Special emphasis will be paid on the popular success (or failure) of recent film adaptations, although a few previous versions will also be considered. At least one film in a foreign language will be studied to examine how both text and context have been translated into another culture. A tentative list of films includes Chimes at Midnight, Grigori Kozintsev's King Lear, Derek Jarman's The Tempest, Kenneth Branagh's Henry V, Franco Zefirelli's Hamlet and Christine Edzard's As You Like It.
Screenings will be double features, two nights each week. The class will meet three times per week for two hours. Students will be recommended to read the anthology Shakespeare and the Moving Image: The plays on Film and Television, edited by Anthony Davies and Stanley Wells, and other readings will consist of articles and/or chapters from books.
Evaluation will be based on a paper (to be submitted at the end of the course), on a specific film, or a particular aspect to be examined in several film adaptations.
Enrollment limited to 20.
Cost to student: one book (recommended) and photocopies.
Meeting time: mornings.

DIAZ-FERNENDEZ (Instructor)
GIMENEZ (Sponsor)

RLSP 014 Federico Garcia Lorca

Lorca is possibly the best known Spanish poet of the twentieth century. His tragic death in the early stages of the Spanish Civil War has given special relevance to his work. A life at the height of its poetic production was cut short by assassins' bullets in an act that has symbolized the senselessness and tragedy of that war. Fortunately, however, Lorca's creative genius has left a monumental legacy to humanity, and that will be the focus of this Winter Study: to get to know the different facets of his poetry, to read some of his essays, and to read two or three of his well known plays. Students will view films, listen to songs that have used his poetry as lyrics, and, if by chance one of his plays is performed in the vicinity, a tour group will be organized. The idea is to catch a glimpse of Lorca's versatile personality and originality through the readings of his poetry, drama, and prose, and perhaps stimulate in the process a desire to delve deeper into his work. Class will meet three times a week for two hours. Conducted in Spanish.
Requirements: a 10-page paper.
Prerequisites: Spanish 105 or permission of the instructor. Enrollment limited to 30.
Cost to student: the cost of 4-5 paperbacks.
Meeting time: mornings.

GIMENEZ

RLSP 025 Guatemala: Culture, Language and Community Involvement

THIS COURSE HAS BEEN CANCELLED!!!!

RLSP 030 Honors Essay

To be taken by candidates for honors other than by thesis route.

RLSP 031 Senior Thesis

To be taken by students registered for Spanish 493-494.

RUSSIAN

RUSS S.P. Sustaining Program for Russian 101-102

Required of all students enrolled in Russian 101-102. Three meetings per week, 50 minutes per session. Practice in speaking and comprehension based on material already covered as well as some new vocabulary and constructions. Designed to maintain and enhance what was acquired during fall semester, using new approaches in a relaxed atmosphere. No homework.
Regular attendance and active participation required to earn a "Pass." Open to all.

RUSS 010 Icon Painting (Same as ArtS 010)

This course is a step-by-step exploration in the ancient technique of icon painting. It will introduce students to the history and origins of this ancient art form and its symbolism and iconography. The course will include lectures on the history of icon painting as well as hands-on experience in traditional egg tempera technique used by Russian Orthodox icon painters. This class requires no previous artistic training.
Each class will begin with a lecture and proceed to technical exercises. Students will learn the following steps: 1) choosing and preparing an icon board; 2) transfer and engraving the image; 3) application of clay and gilding; 4) coloring schemes and procedures; 5) varnishing.
By the end of the course, students will produce three finished paintings and a research journal. Two icons will be made in class under instructor supervision. The third will be produced as an independent project. Students will keep a journal throughout the class, which will serve as a guide for future projects. Class will meet three times a week.
No prerequisites. Enrollment limited to 15.
Cost to student: $75.00.
Meeting time: mornings.

IVAR and ANNA KRONICK (Instructors)
GOLDSTEIN (Sponsor)

Anna and Ivar Kronick are professional painters and have studied icon painting and conservation at the Repin Academy of Art in Saint Petersburg, Russia. Ivar Kronick also worked at the Williamstown Conservation Center.

RUSS 030 Honors Project

May be taken by candidates for honors other than by thesis route.

RUSS 031 Senior Thesis

To be taken by students registered for Russian 493-494.

SOCIOLOGY-See under ANTHROPOLOGY AND SOCIOLOGY

THEATRE

THEA 010 Empire and Post Apartheid Chic

"Colonial Picturesque" is a term which may be applied to the impact on 18th- and 19th-century European settlers in South Africa of their new and strange surroundings. They defined the alien landscape through their particular "colonial gaze," profoundly influencing their inevitable dominion in a strange land. In post-apartheid South Africa, the current generation is adapting to the changing landscape of President Nelson Mandela's vision for the future. A new sense of Africa and being African is influencing and changing cultural and ethnic identity across generational, racial, and political boundaries.
Either singly or in groups, students will deliver a five minute oral presentation, from the point of view of a "new" South African living in a post-apartheid era. Images evoking the cultural impact of recent events in South Africa-artworks, photographs, film, or video clips for example--should be incorporated into the presentation. Detailed research will be submitted at the conclusion of the course.
Evaluation will be based upon participation in class, and the quality of class presentations and research assignments.
The class will meet three times a week for two hours; there will also be a three-hour lab session devoted to planning the final presentation and researching appropriate materials.
Prerequisite: at least one course from one or more of the following departments: Theatre; Art History; Political Science; History. Applicants who do not fulfill this prerequisite but who believe that they have sufficient experience in one of those disciplines, will be considered, space permitting. Enrollment limited to 30.
Meeting time: mornings; afternoon lab session.

EPPEL

THEA 012 Practicum in Stage Production

This course is a workshop for students with significant experience in theatre at Williams. It will enable a limited number of students to prepare one-act plays under the supervision of the instructor. Workshop performances of these short works will take place at the end of the WSP.
Evaluation of the students' work in the course will be based upon participation in class, observation of the rehearsal process, and the quality and breadth of a production portfolio documenting the materials used in formulating the production. Individual and collective meetings with the instructor will be required, and the instructor will attend a number of the rehearsals of each play.
Prerequisite: significant work in production at Williams and permission of the instructor. Interested students are required to consult with the instructor prior to registration. Enrollment limited to 30.
Meeting time: afternoons.

BUCKY

THEA 030 Senior Production

May be taken by students registered for Theatre 491, 492 but is not required.

THEA 031 Senior Thesis

May be taken by students registered for Theatre 493, 494 but is not required.

WOMEN'S STUDIES

WOST 012 The Politics of Gender-Bending: Drag, Camp, Butch and Fem in the Life and Movies of the End of the Twentieth Century (Same as Political Science 012)

(See under Political Science for full description.)

WOST 016 Rape and Sexual Assault Counseling

This course will provide students with a general education about rape and sexual assault in our society. Topics covered in the classroom lectures and discussions will include: myths and realities of sexual assault; child sexual assault; sexual harassment; crisis counseling; counseling for special populations; the legal system and legal procedures as they pertain to sexual assault; medical response to sexual assault; college procedures; and talking with survivors of rape and sexual assault.
Students will be evaluated on the basis of attendance at every class session, a final project which explores a topic related to course material, an oral presentation of that project, and performance in role play situations. Following the successful completion of this course, students may be eligible to serve as members of the Rape and Sexual Assault Hotline of Williams.
Class will meet four days a week for two hours each session. Outside reading will include Reclaiming Our Lives and relevant articles for each session.
Preference given to first-year students and sophomores. Letters of interest must be submitted to Donna Denelli-Hess at the Health Center.
No prerequisites. Enrollment limited to 30.
Cost to student: $30 covering text and other readings.
Meeting time: mornings.

DONNA DENELLI-HESS (Instructor)
SAWICKI (Sponsor)

Donna Denelli-Hess is Health Educator at Williams College.

WOST 026 Women's Issues in Contemporary India (Same as Philosophy 026)

(See under Philosophy for full description.)

WOST 030 Honors Project

To be taken by candidates for honors other than by thesis route.

WOST 031 Senior Thesis

To be taken by students registered for Women's Studies 493, 494.

SPECIALS

SPEC 010 Introduction to Dutch (Same as German 010)

(See under German for full description.)

SPEC 011 Science for Kids (Same as Chemistry 011 and Environmental Studies 011)

Are you interested in teaching? Do you enjoy working with kids? Do you like to experiment with new things? Here is a chance for you to do all three! The aim of this Winter Study Project is to design a series of hands-on science workshops for elementary school children and their parents. Students, working in groups of 2-4, will spend the first three weeks of Winter Study planning the workshops. This will involve deciding on a focus for each workshop (based on the interests of the students involved) followed by choosing and designing experiments and presentations that will be suitable for 4th-grade children. Then, on the third weekend of Winter Study (January 24, 25) we will bring elementary school kids with their parents to Williams to participate in the workshops. You will get a chance to see what goes into planning classroom demonstrations as well as a sense of what it's like to actually give a presentation. You'll find that kids at this age are great fun to work with because they are interested in just about everything and their enthusiasm is infectious. You'll also be giving the kids and their parents a chance to actually do some fun hands-on science experiments that they may not have seen before, and you'll be able to explain some scientific concepts to them in a manner that won't be intimidating.
Students will be evaluated based on participation in planning and running the workshops and each group will be expected to write up descriptions of the experiments included in the workshop it designs. The class will meet three times a week for approximately two-three hours each time for the first three weeks of Winter Study.
Prerequisites: there is no need to be a science major; all that is needed is enthusiasm and a willingness to learn something more about topics that may be somewhat unfamiliar.
There will be workshops on the third weekend of Winter Study (January 24, 25), so you will need to be available from approximately 9:00 AM - 3:00 PM on these days. There will also be one or two brief meetings late in the fall term for some preliminary planning.
Enrollment limited to 20.
Cost to student: none.
Meeting time: mornings, see above.

L. KAPLAN

SPEC 012 Medical Ethics (Same as Biology 012)

(See under Biology for full description.)

SPEC 013 Genetics and Disease: the Biology, Psychology, and Ethics of Genetic Testing (Same as Psychology 013 and Chemistry 013)

How much of a role do your genes play in disease? What is genetic testing? What are the social and public policy issues surrounding genetic testing? This course will provide current information on how disease-related genes are identified, the availability and reliability of genetic tests, and the actual testing methods in current use. We will consider the contribution of genetic predisposition toward illness compared with other known risk factors, including behavior, personality, and stress. We will also discuss the myriad ethical, moral and economic issues that surround genetic testing and counseling. With the completion of the Human Genome Project in 2005, decisions regarding who will be tested and who will have access to this information will be addressed by both judicial and legislative bodies. Our goal for this course is to supply you with sufficient scientific information and theoretical perspective that you will be able to make significant contributions to the coming public discussion of these complex issues.
The class will meet three times per week for two hours. Approximately 50% of class time will be spent in group discussion of selected readings. Students will prepare three written evaluations of case studies, and will critique each others' writing in class. The final meeting will be devoted to an in-class debate.
Evaluation will be based on participation in class discussions and debate, and by the written assignments.
No prerequisites. Enrollment limited to 30.
Cost to student: none.
Meeting time: mornings.

FRIEDMAN and WEISS

SPEC 014 Winter Emergency Care, CPR, Ski Patrol Rescue Techniques

The course is in three parts. When successfully completed it can lead to a certification as a National Ski Patrol member and certification in Professional Rescue CPR. It will also be designed to teach wilderness and outdoor emergency techniques.
The Winter Emergency Care Course designed by the National Ski Patrol is the main ingredient. It will be supplemented by the professional Red Cross CPR course "Respiratory and Circulatory Emergencies." An additional 14-hour outdoor course in Ski Patrol rescue techniques will be taught. Passing all three courses will certify the student as a National Ski Patrol member if he/she is a competent skier.
The course will deal with wounds of all types, shock, respiratory emergencies, poisoning, drug and alcohol emergencies, burns, frostbite and other exposures to cold, strokes, bone, joint, and back injuries, and sudden illnesses such as heart attacks, convulsions, etc. It will also teach the use of all splints, backboards, bandages, and other rescue equipment. It will teach extrication and other emergency situations and the use of oxygen. The outdoor course will include rescue toboggan handling, organization of rescues, and outdoor practical first aid.
Classroom work will include lectures, seminars, and practical work. There will be a mid-term and a final exam which will be both written and practical. Classroom hours will be held four or five days a week for three and one half hours each day. The outdoor course will be held at Brodie Mountain and Jiminy Peak two days a week from 1:00 p.m. to 4:00 p.m. Attendance at all classes is mandatory. The course will be limited to 18 students, chosen on the basis of skiing interest and ability and prior first aid experience.
Cost to student: $85 which will include all materials and books.
Meeting time: mornings and afternoons.

JAMES BRIGGS (Instructor)
PECK (Sponsor)

Jim Briggs was the Outing Club director at Williams for many years. He has led trips to the Alps on a number of occasions.

SPEC 015 Mock Trial (Same as Mathematics 015)

(See under Mathematics for full description.)

SPEC 016 The Art and the Calling of Becoming a Doctor

C.P. Snow in "The Two Cultures" wrote: "I believe the intellectual life of the whole of western society is increasingly being split into two polar groups....Literary intellectuals at one pole, [and] at the other the scientists...Between the two a gulf of mutual incomprehension-sometimes (particularly among the young) hostility and dislike, but most of all a lack of understanding." This is true for the education of most of today's doctors, who are taught to rely too heavily on just the scientific underpinnings of their profession. Great physicians are scientists and artists.
This course is intended as an antidote to the dehumanizing experiences many premedical students tolerate in the quest to obtain the M.D. degree. It is open to premeds, as well as any student who is curious about a career in the "health sciences" and may have been turned-off by the emphasis on the required sciences. Through guest lectures, readings and open-ended discussions we will consider various nontechnical aspects of being a doctor. The subjects covered will include (but are not limited to) medicine and the humanities, Service, medicine and culture, informatics, and the spiritual aspects of health care. Medicine is a grand profession and for the right person can provide an extraordinarily rewarding life. "The Art and the Calling of Becoming a Doctor" will celebrate the humane aspects of health care.
Students will be evaluated on attendance, class participation and a short presentation.
Enrollment limited to 25.
Cost to student: around $30 for books.
Meeting time: afternoons.

David J. Elpern (Coordinator)
PAGÁN (Sponsor)

Dr. Elpern, a practicing physician, has organized international conferences on the medical humanities for the past ten years.

SPEC 017 Singing School: Popular Protestant American Religious Music (Same as American Studies 017 and Music 017)

This performance-oriented class will explore the history of popular Protestant sacred music in the United States, with a special emphasis on music that might have been sung in the Berkshires from the eighteenth to the early twentieth century-including sacred harp, Shaker hymns, gospel, and African-American spirituals. Our premise will be that this music can provide a valuable route to understanding the complex, diverse religious and social cultures of New England. Outside of class, we will be reading about U.S. religious movements and music history; we will also be "reading" old hymnals, in part with an eye to selecting particular hymns for interpretation and performance. Class time will be divided between discussing the readings and singing. There will also be visits by local historians and musicians, and possibly one master class by a scholar/performer of early American music. The class will culminate with a concert, to be held at a local site where some of these hymns were once sung.
Requirements: Students will be expected to meet 8-9 hours a week (three discussions/rehearsals); during the last week, when preparing for the concert, there may be one or two longer rehearsals. In addition to participating in classes and the performance, students will be expected to work on a group project-either an oral report on some aspect of the reading, or the interpretation and teaching of one hymn to the class.
Evaluation will be based on all these activities.
Prerequisites: Singers are of course very welcome, but no previous singing experience or particular talent is necessary-we'll be simulating a congregation. Participants must, however, be willing to sing out.
Enrollment limited to 20.
Cost to student: approximately $30.
Meetings: afternoons.

Swann

SPEC 018 The Art of Brewing Beer (Same as Chemistry 018)

(See under Chemistry for full description.)

SPEC 019 Medical Apprenticeship

A student is assigned to a local physician, dentist, or veterinarian to observe closely his or her practice in the office and/or at the North Adams Regional Hospital, Berkshire Medical Center (Pittsfield, MA), or Southwestern Vermont Medical Center (Bennington, VT). It is expected that a student will spend the better part of the day, five days a week, with the physician or a period mutually agreed upon by the student and the physician as being educationally significant. The program has proven to be extremely successful in giving interested students a clear picture of the practice of medicine in a non-urban area. An effort is made to expose the student to a range of medical specialties.
A 10-page report written on some aspect of the month's experience is required.
Prerequisite: interested students must consult with Karen Theiling, the Premedical Advisor, prior to applying for this course. Preference is given to juniors, and then sophomores, whose course work has been suggestive of a firm commitment to preparation for medical school. Enrollment limited to 44.
Cost to student: none, except for local transportation.
Meeting time: to be arranged.

TEACHING ASSOCIATES (Instructors)

DEBORAH AUGUST, M.D.  JOSHUA KLEEDERMAN, D.M.D.
KEVIN P. BARUZZI, M.D. WILLIAM KOBER, M.D.
DANIEL I. BECKER, M.D. JONATHAN KRANT, M.D.
CHRISTOPHER BRANDY, M.D. IRA LAPIDUS, D.M.D.
ROBERT BROOKS, M.D. JOAN E. LISTER, M.D.
BRIAN CUNNINGHAM, M.D. PAUL MAHER, M.D.
RUTLEDGE CURRIE, M.D. RONALD S. MENSH, M.D.
LEE DELANEY, D.V.M. RANDALL MILLER, M.D.
MICHAEL R. DEMATTEO, M.D. STEVE NELSON, M.D.
PAUL DONOVAN M.D. CHARLES O'NEILL, M.D.
STUART DUBUFF, M.D. JUDY H. ORTON, M.D.
DAVID ELPERN, M.D. MICHAEL C. PAYNE, M.D.
ROBERT FANELLI, M.D. FERNANDO PONCE, M.D.
STUART FREYER, M.D. HENRY RICHMOND, M.D.
MICHAEL L. GERRITY, M.D. DANIEL S. ROBBINS, M.D.
CYNTHIA GEYER, M.D. OSCAR RODRIQUES, M.D.
BENJAMIN GLICK, M.D. SIMRITA SIDHU, M.D.
HENRY M. GOLD, M.D. CHARLES SILBERMAN, M.D.
DAVID M. GORSON, M.D. JULIE SILBERSTEIN, M.D.
BONNIE H. HERR, M.D. ANTHONY M. SMEGLIN, M.D.
DOUGLAS V. HERR, M.D. ERWIN A. STUEBNER, JR., M.D.
ROBERT HERTZIG, M.D. DANIEL M. SULLIVAN, M.D.
JUDITH HOLMGREN, M.D. KATHERINE URANECK, M.D.
ROBERT C. JANDL, M.D. CHARLES I. WOHL, M.D.
LAURA JONES, D.V.M.JEFFREY A. YUCHT, M.D.
THOMAS KAEGI, M.D. MARK ZIMPFER, M.D.
COLLEEN KELLEY, M.D.

SPEC 022 Inside College Athletics

This course will examine current issues within the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) and how they affect Williams. Issues to be addressed include: divisions of competition, athletic scholarships, entrance requirements, recruiting, Title IX, and the overall operation of intercollegiate athletics at Williams.
Students will be evaluated on the basis of regular class attendance and participation, the submission of a research paper of at least 10 pages, and an oral report on a behind the scenes look at a Williams athletic contest.
Lecture discussion sessions will be held three times a week.
No prerequisites. Enrollment limited to 15.
Cost to student: $35, covering texts and photocopying charges.
Meeting time: mornings.

RICHARD QUINN (Instructor)
PECK (Sponsor)

Richard Quinn is Assistant Director of Public Information and Sports Information Director at Williams College.

SPEC 023 Book Publishing

This course combines practical `hands-on' workshops in editing, marketing, graphic design, and production/manufacturing with lecture/teaching sessions conducted by professionals from all aspects of the publishing process. Primarily devoted to book publishing, the purpose of the workshops and discussions is to provide student with `real-life' experience in actually performing the tasks they would at a publishing house. Students will be given practical assignments in writing advertising and publicity copy, and in preparing an overall marketing plan for a list of forthcoming titles. Experienced professionals will lead the workshops, which will include some on-site sessions at Storey Communications, a local book publishing company in Williamstown. Students will develop a clear sense of their own aptitude and ability in this profession.
We will meet three times a week for approximately three hours each session for the first two weeks of Winter Study. Workshops and project preparation may run longer during the third and fourth weeks. There may also be a meeting held late in the fall term for some preliminary planning.
Students will be evaluated on the basis of regular attendance, class participation, completion of the workshops and assignments, and on the preparation and presentation of their publishing project.
Enrollment limited to 20.
Cost to student: none.
Meeting time: afternoons.

M. JOHN STOREY '65
H. ART (Sponsor)

M. John Storey '65 is owner and president of STOREY COMMUNICATIONS, INC., a book publishing company.

SPEC 027 Writing Workshop at Theodore Roosevelt High School

Williams students participating in this Winter Study project will work intensively with selected Roosevelt students on honing their writing skills. Tutors will plan lessons in collaboration with two English teachers, and then work closely with their classes. They will also work individually with selected Roosevelt students. In addition, the tutors, together with Williams teaching interns (see SPEC 028), will meet with educators and teachers to discuss aspects of the educational experience at Roosevelt. Tutors will have regular meetings with Prof. Newman to discuss their work.
Requirements: active and reliable participation in tutoring and discussion during January; participation in several brief orientation meetings before January (including one half-day trip to TRHS), and a 5-10-page report of some sort at the end of the program.
Prerequisites: strong interest in working with young people and in writing. Enrollment limited to sophomores, juniors and seniors.
Cost to student: approximately $350 for transportation and food. We will attempt to find housing for tutors and interns. Consult with instructor.
Meeting time: to be arranged.

NEWMAN
Sponsored by the German and Russian Departments

SPEC 028 Teaching Practicum: Roosevelt High School, the Bronx

Participating students are expected to pursue a full schedule of observing, teaching, tutoring, etc. at Roosevelt High School for the four weeks of January, under the overall direction of Mrs. Janet Saraceno, Assistant Principal for English. Interested students should consult with Dean of Admission Phil Smith, at Mather House, who will arrange for several orientation meetings on campus and a one day visit to Roosevelt in December, prior to the Winter Study Period.
Criteria for a pass include full-time affiliation with Roosevelt for the month, keeping a daily journal, and submitting a 5-10 page report at the end of WSP, reflecting upon and summarizing the month's learning and experiences.
Prerequisite: successful completion of orientation program. Enrollment limited to 12 sophomores, juniors, and/or seniors interested in urban education.
Cost to student: some food and transportation costs. Dean Smith will attempt to arrange housing for the month.
Meeting time: to be arranged.

P. SMITH

SPEC 029 Principles of Flight

Have you ever looked at an airplane in the sky and asked, "What keeps it up there?" Or, "How do they navigate when the weather is bad and they can't see the ground?" Or, better yet, "How can the weather be predicted with any degree of accuracy and can I do it?"
These and other questions will be explored in this course. It will be divided into the following three sections: 1) Why a plane flies. This part will consist of the fundamental principles of physics involved in flight and a brief description of piloting (but no in-flight instruction). 2) Navigation, or how do you get there from here. Included will be the use of navigational charts, radio and radar navigation, in-flight computers, and celestial navigation. 3) Meteorology, or can I really predict the weather. Included will be fronts, high and low pressure areas, winds, cloud formations, precipitation, weather maps, and aviation forecasts.
We plan to visit the Albany control tower and radar control center. For those interested in getting a pilot's license, the information in this course is part of ground-school requirements for the written FAA exam.
Enrollment limited to 30.
Meeting time: mornings.

E. Woodward Printz (Instructor)
M.S. Civil Engineering (Transportation option); Commercial pilot certificate.
Jay M. Pasachoff (Sponsor)

SPEC 034 The Contemporary Singer/Songwriter

Objective: To learn to express thought, feelings, opinions, and stories in song form. To develop communication as an outgrowth of personal expression, and to acquire the skills necessary to perform original works in a public setting.
Class will meet three times a week, culminating in a public performance of material written during the course. Students should expect to spend 6-8 hours a week in class, in addition to working on assignments and preparing for performance. Enrollment limited to 15.
Cost should not exceed $25 (books, notebooks, and copies of lyrics for the class).
Meeting time: afternoons.

BERNICE LEWIS (Instructor)
FIX (Sponsor)

Bernice Lewis is an accomplished singer and songwriter who has performed her work throughout the country. She lives in Williamstown.

SPEC 035 Making Pottery on the Potter's Wheel

Each class will begin with a lecture-demonstration, followed by practice on the potter's wheel. Each student will have the use of a potter's wheel for each class. We will work on mugs, bowls, pitchers, plates, jars, lids, vases, and bottles, and will finish these shapes as required by trimming and adding handles, lugs, lids, spouts, and knobs. We will also work on several different handbuilding projects. After to tenth class session, all class work will be biscuit-fired. The eleventh class will be devoted to glazing the biscuited pieces. Glazing techniques will include pouring, dipping, layering, brushing, and stamping, and using wax resist and other masking techniques to develop pattern and design. The completed work will then be glaze-fired. The last meeting will be devoted to a "final exam" gallery show of your best work. Woven into lecture-demonstrations will be presentations on various topics relating to the science and history of pottery making.
The two most important requirements for this course are attendance at all class sessions and enthusiasm for learning the craft of pottery making.
Enrollment limited to 9.
Cost to student: $120 plus makeup class fees ($20 per class) if applicable.
Meeting time: mornings.

RAY BUB (Instructor)
Sponsored by the Winter Study Committee

Ray Bub is a ceramic artist and potter at Oak Bluffs Cottage Pottery in Pownal Vermont. He also teaches pottery making at Southern Vermont College.

SPEC 036 Teaching Practicum: St. Aloysius School, Harlem

An opportunity for up to three students to observe and practice and teach and tutor at St. Aloysius School in Harlem for the four weeks of January, under the direction of Mrs. Laurel Senger, Principal. Interested students should consult with Dean of Admission Phil Smith at Mather House, who will arrange for orientation meetings and a visit to St. Aloysius in December, prior to Winter Study.
Criteria to pass include full-time affiliation with St. Aloysius for the month, keeping a daily journal, and submitting a 5- to 10-page report at the end of WSP, reflecting upon and summarizing the month's learning and experiences.
Enrollment limited to 3 sophomores, juniors, or seniors, interested in urban education.
Cost to student: some food and transportation costs as well as some housing costs, if the student is not able to find housing for the month. Dean Smith will attempt to arrange housing for those unable to find their own accommodations.

P. SMITH

SPEC 037 Buildings Histories of Williams

Ever wondered how much was spent to build Lasell Gymnasium? Or what building was previously on the site of Thompson Chapel? What about the person for whom your dorm is named? The aim of this course is to introduce students to historical research using the variety of primary and secondary resources available in Sawyer Library and the College's Archives. These resources will enable us to research and to compose essays that will illuminate the histories and meanings behind the campus facades, monuments and sites that we so often take for granted. Student work is planned for inclusion in a proposed interactive historical campus map project. Students will be responsible for producing a building/site essay and biographical sketches of individuals related to the site (approximately 10 pages), and for selecting visual and/or documentary materials to illustrate or expand the essay and sketch(es).
Class will meet three times a week, and significant research outside of class time is expected.
Prerequisites: permission of instructors. Enrollment limited to 6.
Cost to student: $30 for books and photocopies.
Meeting time: mornings.

LEE DALZELL and SYLVIA KENNICK BROWN (Instructors)
CUTLER (Sponsor)

SPEC 038 Science and Computer Science in an Elementary School Classroom

In an increasingly complex technological world familiarity, education, and training become all important for success in any field. Today's world of science demands demands a scientifically literate population. To foster national science literacy, education at the elementary level is an ideal first step. Debate rages on elementary science education; however, educational experts agree on the following points: 1) children need a balance of content (information and concepts) and process (activities and experiments); and 2) children must find science interesting, enjoyable, and pertinent. One avenue for practice of these points is occurring at Williamstown Elementary School. Williams College is collaborating with WES to bring hands-on inquiry of nature and seeking answers that give meaning to their experiences. The students learn about science by doing science rather than reading textbooks and memorizing facts. Every class is equipped with computers analysis and graphing software. Williams students in this program are paired with WES teachers. Working closely with the classroom teachers, students develop curriculum appropriate experiments, activities, computer work, and demonstrations which support inquiry based science. The class requires ten hours a week most of which will be spent in classroom (WES is located across from the tennis courts). Regular meetings will be held to discuss elementary school science reform and science/computer instruction. A 10-page paper on each student's Winter Study experience will be due at the end of the term. There will be a meeting in early December to match those enrolled with teachers.
Prerequisites: desire to work with children and teachers, interest in science, a basic knowledge of computers (no programming experience necessary). Enrollment limited to 12.

JENNIFER SWOAP (Instructor)
ZOTTOLI (Sponsor)

Jennifer Swoap is the Science Liaison for the Williamstown Elementary School and Williams College. She has been a systems consultant for Andersen Consulting and has taught third grade, computer science, and high school physics.


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